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Open Access Short Research Article

Molecular Typing of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Healthy Indigenous Chickens in Grenada

Victor A. Amadi, Harry Hariharan, Keshaw Tiwari, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Jisun S. Haan, Azad Singh, Sunil Kumar Mor, Sagar M. Goyal, Ravindra Sharma

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38676

Aim: To identify the sequence types (STs) of Campylobacter from indigenous chickens in Grenada and compare the results to other animals in Grenada and other countries from previous published studies.

Study Design: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Little is known in Grenada about the dynamics of the epidemiology of Campylobacter in food animals including indigenous chickens.

Methodology: In a previous study, 158 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from cloacal swab samples of 315 randomly selected healthy indigenous chickens in Grenada between May and July 2014. After isolation, the 158 Campylobacter isolates were stored in 10% sterile skim milk solution at -80°C until ready for DNA extraction. DNA was extracted from only 24 viable Campylobacter isolates out of the 158 Campylobacter isolates stored. The extracted DNA samples were shipped on dry ice for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis.

Results: A total of 24 viable Campylobacter isolates (13 C. jejuni and 11 C. coli) were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Different clonal complexes (CCs) and STs were identified from the 24 Campylobacter isolates with ST-353 identified as the predominant STs from C. jejuni isolates. Most of the previously reported STs in this study belong to ST-828 CC. All the previously reported STs generated from C. jejuni have been associated with human gastroenteritis in different geographical regions. Five novel clones which have not been reported in humans or animals worldwide were identified in this study.

Conclusion: This study showed the importance of indigenous chickens as reservoirs for Campylobacter species that have been associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. This study also revealed that indigenous chickens in Grenada harbor novel Campylobacter STs that have not been reported in humans and animals worldwide. This is the first report that documents the molecular typing of Campylobacter species and the identification of novel Campylobacter STs from indigenous chickens of Grenada origin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Acute Doses of Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Some Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Rats

B. T. Aluko, O. I. Oloyede, O. R. Molehin, Y. R. Alli Smith

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38155

Aim: This study was designed to assess the toxic effect of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles on some biochemical parameters of Wistar rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Between June and November, 2016.

Methodology: Thirty six rats were randomly distributed into six experimental groups of six animals each. Group 1 served as the control and received distilled water. Groups 2 to 6 were orally exposed to a single dose varying concentrations of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The animals were observed daily for signs of toxicity and mortality for 14 days. Thereafter, they were sacrificed and alterations in the haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and some functional indices of the liver and kidney were then evaluated.

Results: The administration of the nanoparticle did not result in mortality of the rats at the tested doses. Also there were no  significant (P<0.05) alterations in the computed liver- and kidney-body weight ratios, serum lipid profile, white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, urea, sodium, chloride, potassium and glucose levels. The concentrations of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and neutrophils decreased significantly. In contrast, the levels of the red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, also, the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased significantly (P<0.05).  Also the administration of the nanoparticle induced a significant increase in the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA) formed in the liver and kidney at 1000, 2000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg.

Conclusion: Although, no mortality was observed, this study suggests that magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles may have mild hepatotoxic effects at the doses investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Some Biological Indices of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae Treated with Three Control Agents under Laboratory Conditions

M. A. Gesraha, A. R. Ebeid, N. Y. Salem, W. L. Abdou

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37895

Aims: Sensitivity of Agrotis ipsilon towards three control agents: Runner, Tracer and local raw diatomaceous earth (silica nano-particles) were investigated.

Study Design: Evaluation of the effects of some insecticides on some nutritional indices of the black cutworm A. ipsilon.

Place and Duration of Study: Pests and Plant Protection Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, within 2016-2017.

Methodology: Newly moulted 4th instar larvae were transferred individually into plastic cups (5 cm in diameter and 5 cm height) to avoid the cannibalistic behaviour then covered with muslin. These cups were divided into three groups each one was marked for one tested material, while the 4th group was marked as check (untreated control). Each one of the three groups was subdivided into three subgroups, each subgroup comprised 30 individuals to be represented for three concentrations (High, Medium and Low concentration). Each cup was provided with known weighed of fresh castor bean leaves treated with one of the abovementioned concentration of each tested material.

Nutritional indices were calculated using the following items: food consumption, weight gain, developmental time and percentage of mortality as well. Larvae were weighted before the experiment and repeated daily until the pupation or death. Weights were recorded daily; at the end of the experiment, all above recoded weights were expressed as percentage of dry masses and reweighted to reach a constant weight. The calculation of the nutritional indices as the following: Relative growth rate (RGR), the conversion of ingested food (Approximate digestibility (AD)), Efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance (ECI), consumption index and Efficiency of conversion of digested food into growth (ECD) were carried out according to the summarized equations.

Results: All the tested agents were found to be toxic to A. ipsilon, inducing significant mortality percentage at almost all tested concentrations. The physiological parameters (nutritional indices) affected by the tested agents were evaluated. Results showed that treated larvae reflected significant reduction in consumed food and growth. The approximate digestibility of treated larvae was insignificantly high for all treatments. Silica nano-particles insignificantly enhance the rapid mortality as compared with Tracer (insecticide) and/or Runner (IGR) at all tested concentration.

Conclusion: The growth rate was decreased when larvae consumed castor bean leaves dipped in IGR by increasing the concentration. This decrease in consumption rate is due to antifeedant, deterrent nature and toxic mode of action of IGR. Rearing of A. ipsilon larvae on host plant treated with IGR induced reduction in growth rate, efficiency in convert food to body mass and also, reduction in pupal weight. Depending on the obtained results, the IGR has adverse effect on A. ipsilon larvae. Thus, it can be used in the control program for the present insect pest, since the highest AD and the low ECD values lead to the retardation of growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility of Eggplant Cultivars to Sap-Sucking Insect Pest’s Infestation

Rania S. Rashwan, Emad A. M. Gado

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/37841

The present study was carried out to study the changes in the population density of three main pests attacking two varieties of eggplant (Solanum melongena). The three insect pests were Bemisia tabaci (Genn), Aphis gossypii (Glover) and Empoasca decipiens (Paoli). The seasonal changes in the population density for three main pests formed two peaks during 2012/2013 season on two varieties. The first peak for B. tabaci was recorded on (classic variety) during the first weak December, the second peak was recorded at the first week of March. For (Sicilian variety) the first peak occurred on the second week of December while second peak was recorded on the end of February. The first peak for A. gossypii on (Classic v.) occurred through mid of December and the second formed on mid of arch. The second peak was recorded through mid of March. For (Sicilian v.) the first and second peak were stated at the end December and at the end of February respectively. The population density of E. decipiens of the first peaks was recorded on (Classic v.) mid of December and the second peak was recorded on mid of February. For (Sicilian v.) the two peaks occurred on mid of February and mid of March respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Environmental Radioactivity in Basra and Baghdad Cities, Iraq

Falah H. Shanoon, Sadie A. Menkhi, B. A. Almayahi, Anfal S. Dawood

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35499

Introduction: This research focused on study of the spatial and temporal variability of environmental radioactivity and impact of the pollution on the human health in Basra and Baghdad cities, Iraq.

Materials and Methods: Contamination is existence the contaminants in the natural environment, which is causing damage to it with a disturbance in the ecosystem. Contaminants are either foreign substances in the environment or natural substances but are exceeded the recommended levels. Pollution is not only associated with chemicals materials but also extends to various forms of energy, such as noise and thermal pollutions. Radioactive contamination is one of the most dangerous types of pollution on human’s health. It has the ability to enter the human body and other organisms without warning. It is odorless, colorless, tasteless, and deadly. It was found in the air, water, soil.

Results: The food contaminations by the radioactivity result of using uranium munitions by the US military and its allies through the recent wars in Iraq (1991 to 2015). It was caused severe environmental and health disasters that led to cancer and increasing in the rate of birth defects.

Conclusions: Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Iraq has shown that over 306 sites were contaminated by mercury-containing pesticides and heavy metals such as phenol, chlorine, and depleted uranium, because of abandoned weapons in some the areas in Iraq.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Boron Applications on the Physiology and Yield of Lettuce

Sezer Sahin, Dursun Kısa, Feride Göksu, Naif Geboloğlu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38772

Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the effects of boron applications on vegetative development, antioxidant activity and mineral composition of lettuce.

Study Design: In the greenhouse, treatments arranged according to a completely randomized block design, with four replications.

Methodology: Funnly F1 lettuce cultivar was used as the plant material and Etidot-67 (21% B) fertilizer was use as the boron source. Five different boron doses (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 gr da-1) were applied and changes in lettuce plants were observed. Effects of different boron doses on root weights, head weights, water soluble dry matter (WSDM) contents, titratable acidity (TA), pH, vitamin C, leaf N, P, K and B concentrations were investigated. Besides, leaf ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) contents were also investigated.

Results: Root and marketable plant weights decreased with increasing boron doses. Boron treatments did not show significant effects on plant chlorophyll contents and biochemical characteristics. Leaf B concentrations increased with increasing B doses. Compared to control treatments, significant increases were observed in enzyme activities with boron treatments. APX, CAT, POD activities at the highest boron dose were respectively measured as 6.53, 527 and 0.387. Current results revealed that a boron dose of over 200 gr da-1 created stress conditions in lettuce plants.

Conclusion: Fertilizers should be selected and applied by taking boron sensitivity or resistance levels of plants into consideration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Some Plant Extracts and Entomopathogenic Nematode against Pomegranate Aphid, Aphis punicae under Laboratory Condition

A. S. Alghamdi, A. H. Nour El-Deen, A. F. Al-Barty, M. M. Hassan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38575

The in vitro aphicidal activity of five medicinal and aromatic plant extracts at concentrations of 10, 5 and 2%; and entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae with levels of 2000, 1000, 500 and 250 IJs on the mortality of pomegranate aphid, Aphis punicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were evaluated after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hrs of exposure time. The plants used were Azadiracta indica, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Withania somnifera and Tagetes erecta. Results revealed that individual mortality percentages generally increased with the increase of extract concentrations and nematode levels for every exposure times of four tests. Among treatments of the extracts, A. indica significantly gave the highest value (77.9%) for every concentrations and exposure times; followed by C. procera with value of 71.5%; whereas, treatment of C. roseus gave the lowest significant value of pomegranate aphid mortality that was amounted to be 23.4%. In respect to entomopathogenic nematode, 2000 IJs was the best level at all durations of exposure. On the other hand, level of 250 IJs gave the lowest mortality of A. punicae individuals after 24 and 48 h of exposure. The study indicates the possible use of such botanicals and S. feltiae as well against pomegranate aphid.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of a Probiotic Dietary Supplementation on the Amino Acid and Mineral Composition of Broilers Meat

Alfiya Sharipova, Danis Khaziev, Svetlana Kanareikina, Vladimir Kanareikin, Maksim Rebezov, Marina Kazanina, Alexandra Andreeva, Eleonora Okuskhanova, Zhanibek Yessimbekov, Olga Bykova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38429

Commercially available probiotic “Vetosporin Active” was used in chicken broilers feed as an additive. The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a dietary probiotic supplementation on the amino acid and mineral composition of broilers meat. One control and three experimental groups of chicken broilers were fed for 42 days where for II, III and IV experimental group the “Vetosporin Active” probiotic additive has been added at the level of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg to feed for broilers. The broiler meat from III experimental group was more nutritious being richer in protein (21.2%), while similar protein content was detected in I and II groups (20.2% and 20.3%, respectively) and III and IV groups (21.2% and 21.0%, respectively). Significant reducing of fat amount was in III group (up to 3.9% comparing with 4.7% in the meat of I group). The analysis revealed differences in the amino acid composition of broilers meat. The sum of essential amino acids was highest in III group. Thus, the amount of leucine and isoleucine in III group was higher to 1.8% comparing to I control group. However, the methionine content was lower in III group than in other groups. The mineral content is higher in samples of meat from II, III and IV groups comparing with I control group. The concentration of calcium in the samples from III group was higher to 4.6 mg, 1.9 mg and 1.4 mg of those samples from I, II and IV group, respectively.

On the contrary summarized evaluation was done to find out whether the amino acid or other mineral contents are significant in the broiler meat or not, rather if it is not sufficient enough to assure the values, then further processing of the meat in needed to be done with much professional attitude. Diets of the animals also have to be improved enough so that all the animals could ensure the required dietary need.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoplankton Community Response to Seasonal Changes in Chlorophyll a and Nitrate-Phosphate Concentrations in a Tidal Blackwater River in Niger Delta

John Onwuteaka, Prince Onyinye Choko

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/38456

The study evaluated the seasonal abundance of standing stock of phytoplankton groups in a tidal blackwater system of the New Calabar River in Nigeria. The focus was on observable patterns in phytoplankton community structure as it relates to the variations in the supplies of production such as Chlorophyll a and growth-limiting nutrients such as Nitrate and Phosphate. The results showed there were significant seasonal variation in the cell counts of the dominant family groups such as Bacillariophyceae (70%:90%) and Chlorophyceae (3%:30%) to total phytoplankton between wet and dry season respectively. The results also produced a community structure composed of four groups with a consistent seasonal dominance order of Bacillariophyceae> Chlorophyceae> Cyanophyceae> Dinophyceae. The observation contrasts with studies of blackwater systems which has at varying levels other groups such Euglenophyceae, Charophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Haptophyceae and Rhodophyceae. The three parameters of Nitrate, Phosphate and Chlorophyll a evaluated to explain the abundance in cell counts provide contrasting differences in their relationship to each of the phytoplankton groups between seasons. The results showed that seasonal changes in cell numbers were inversely related with changes in chlorophyll a concentration which suggests that it is not a reliable indicator of increase in cell numbers of the Phytoplankton groups within the study area. In comparison the Phosphate and Nitrate components had a moderate positive correlation with phytoplankton cell standing stock. This observation was interpreted as a probable effect of uptake and drawdown ratios of bioavailable nitrates and phosphate by phytoplankton in proportions that allow only marginal increase in Chlorophyll a production.