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Open Access Original Research Article

Trend and Structure of Populations of Balanites aegyptiaca in Parkland Agroforestsin Western Niger

Boubacar Idrissa, Idrissa Soumana, Youssoufa Issiaka, Ambouta J. M. Karimou, Ali Mahamane, Saadou Mahamane, John C. Weber

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38650

Current and future trends of the parklands and the population of Balanites aegyptiaca in western Niger were investigated through the analysis of the diversity, the regeneration status and the size class distributions of the woody plants. A total of 21 plots, measuring 2500 m2 (50 m x 50 m) each were randomly selected to represent the parklands of B. aegyptiaca in the study area. Across all plots 1180 individual plants were recorded, representing 13 species, 10 genera and 7 families. The most diverse family is Fabaceae and the most dominant family is Balanitaceae represented by only one species B. aegyptiaca. The density of the regeneration was 71.16 and 33.31 plants ha-1 for the entire parkland and the population of Balanites aegyptiaca, respectively, while the diversity and the evenness indices of B. aegyptiaca were 2.52 and 0.24, respectively. B. aegypticaFaidherbia albidaHyphaene thebeica and Acacia nilotica populations had the highest values for the importance value index (IVI). Results from the analysis of the size class distribution indicate that the parklands and the population of B. aegyptiaca appear to be healthy and stable with high regeneration rates. However, low recruitment of juveniles to adults was observed due to seedling and sapling mortality, and high disturbance regimes, which in the long term can affect the population turnover.Acacia tortilisA. senegalAzadirachta indica and Prosopis juliflora populations had the lowest IVI values and may be the most sensitive to the disturbance regimes in the study area. Therefore, we suggest designing and implementing a conservation programme in the study area, which will protect and facilitate the growth of the juveniles of both overexploited and underexploited populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leaf Amino Acids and Anatomical Traits of Drought Tolerant vs Sensitive Genotypes of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Elevated Levels of Water Stress

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, R. M. Abd El-Salam, A. E. E. Badran, S. T. Boulos, Mai M. A. El-Moghazi

Annual Research & Review in Biology,
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39048

Many plants accumulate compatible osmolytes at high levels in plant cells such as amino acids and/or develop special epidermal cell bladders which may serve as external water reservoirs and having small and thick-walled cells in response to water deficit. The objectives of the present investigation were: (i) to study effects of water stress on the anatomical traits and accumulation of free amino acids in quinoa leaves and (ii) to describe differences among drought tolerant and sensitive genotypes in such traits following the imposition of water deficit. A field experiment was carried out in the growing season 2015/2016, using a split plot design with five replications. Main plots were allotted to three irrigation regimes, i.e. well watering (WW) [95% field capacity (FC)], moderate water stress (WS) [65% FC] and severe water stress (SWS) [35% FC] and sub plots to five genotypes. Mean squares due to genotypes, irrigation regimes and their interaction were significant (p≤0.01) for studied leaf free amino acids and anatomical traits. Water stress caused a significant decrease in leaf thickness under WS and SWS, upper and lower epidermis under WS, palisade and spongy layers under SWS, but caused a significant increase in palisade and spongy layers under WS and upper and lower epidermis under SWS. The genotype CICA-17 (tolerant) had the thickest leaf and upper epidermis and second thickest lower epidermis, palisade and spongy layers. Contents of each amino acid were significantly increased due to water stress, except Leucine. Increases in amino acid content increased by increasing severity of water stress. Maximum increase (109.6%) was shown by Threonine under SWS, but minimum (8.08%) was by Arginine under WS. Under SWS, the tolerant genotype CICA-17 showed the highest mean increase percentage (47.9%) in total amount of amino acids relative to WW; it showed the highest increase in all amino acids, especially Proline, Methionine and Phenylalanine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Process Optimization for Lipolytic Bacterial Fermentation: Value Addition to the By-products of Oil Seeds

Shweta Sachan, Aditi Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38811

Background: Lipase enzyme has wide application in industries, particularly food and detergent, but high production cost has always limited its use. Extensive studies are underway on production of high quality and low cost lipase enzyme in large amounts, for which microbial sources have been found to be the best.

Aim: To estimate the potential of oil cakes for bacterial lipase production.

Methodology: By-products of different oil seeds viz. neem, sesame, flax, mustard, coconut, castor, and groundnut were used for the preparation of fermentation media to culture lipolytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Optimization of growth condition was done with respect to different parameters such as fermentation time, nitrogen supplements, carbon additives, and lipid sources.

Results: A good lipolytic P. aeruginosa JCM5962 (T) strain was isolated from soil of sugarcane field. Results of the study showed that coconut, sesame, neem, flax and mustard oilcakes induced good lipolytic activity from bacteria. Negligible lipase activity was obtained when organism was cultured in castor and groundnut oilcake medium. 1% ammonium nitrate as an additional nitrogen supplement was found to be ideal parameter for improved production.

Conclusion: According to present work, lipases could be economically produced by P. aeruginosa using low cost oil cakes as potent substrate for fermentation medium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytochrome b Diversity and Phylogeny of Six Egyptian Sheep Breeds

Othman E. Othman, Agnès Germot, Muhammad G. Khodary, Daniel Petit, Abderrahman Maftah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38879

Aim: Cytochrome b (Cyt-b) regions of mtDNA have received more attention due to their role in the genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies in different livestock. By using Cytochrome b sequencing, we aimed to clarify the genetic affinities and phylogeny of six Egyptian sheep breeds.

Methodology: The genomic DNA was extracted and the specific primers were used for conventional PCR amplification of the Cytochrome b region of mtDNA (1134-bp) in sheep. The alignment of sequences was done to identify the sequence variations and polymorphic sites in the amplified fragments.

Results: The results showed the presence of 39 polymorphic sites leading to the formation of 29 haplotypes (accession numbers: MG407500 - MG407528) with total haplotype diversity 0.814 and nucleotide diversity 0.00359. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Rahmani and Saidi while the highest distance was observed between Ossimi and Sohagi. The sequences of 111 analyzed samples were aligned with reference sequences of different haplogroups; A, B, C, D and E. The result showed that 86 out of 111 tested animals cluster with haplogroup B (77.48%), whereas 12 tested animals cluster with each of both haplogroups A and C (10.81%) and one animal belongs to haplogroup E (0.90%) with the absence of haplogroup D.

Conclusion: Cytochrome b regions of mtDNA have an important role in the genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies in farm animals as well as many other mammalian species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Purity and Antioxidant Effects of Commercial and Laboratory Essential Oils of Cinnamomum zeylancium

Majid Aminzare, Ashkan Jebelli Javan, Behdad Shokrollahi, Samira Maftoon

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38967

Background: According to the proof of antioxidant and antibacterial effects of cinnamon essential oil, nowadays several commercial companies around the world have extracted and distributed cinnamon essential oil with one hundred percent purity.

Objectives: This study has been designed to evaluate chemical composition and antioxidant activity of commercial cinnamon essential oil compared with pure essential oil obtained in laboratory.

Materials and Methods: Laboratory cinnamon essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation method and the commercial essential oils were purchased from two different companies. GC/MS analyses were done to find out the chemical compositions and finally the antioxidant activity of essential oils was determined using three different methods including Fe II chelating test, Reducing power and Antiradical effect (DPPH).

Results: The main components identified in laboratory cinnamon essential oil were Cinnamaldehyde (77%), Cinnamaldehyde Dimethyl Acetate (6.6%), Alpha- copaene (6%) and Delta-cadinene (3%). The result of GC/MS showed that the components of the laboratory essential oil were different from those of commercial ones, so that in the two commercial essential oils Cinnamaldehyde, trans caryophyllene, linalool and eugenol were the main components. Regarding the antioxidant activity of metal chelating test, the laboratory essential oil with the inhibitory effect of 17.1% was stronger than two commercial essential oils with the inhibitory effect of 9% and 6.2% for highest concentration (P<0.05). But laboratory essential oil was statistically weaker than commercial essential oils with the IC50 of 22449 μg/ml compared with 5708 μg/ml and 4230 μg/ml in DPPH assay, as well as absorption values of 0.15 compared with 0.2 and 0.22 for highest concentration in reducing power assay, respectively (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Generally, the analysis of the chemical composition of essential oils proved that laboratory essential oil and commercial essential oils were extracted from different parts of plant and commercial essential oils showed stronger antioxidant activities than laboratory essential oil. This evidence could be due to low levels of phenolic and monoterpene components in laboratory cinnamon essential oil.