Open Access Original Research Article

The Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity of Different Fractions of Myrtus communis L. Leaves

Fatima Benchikh, Smain Amira, Hassiba Benabdallah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39217

Aims: Myrtus communis L. (Myrtle) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic content of Myrtus communis L. leaves and to investigate the antioxydant activity of the methanol extract and its fractions.

Methodology: Myrtus communis L. leaves were extracted using organic solvents with different polarities to get the following fractions: Methanol extract (ME), chloroform extract (CE), ethyl acetate extract (EE) and aqueous extract (AqE). Total polyphenol, flavonoid and tannins contents were evaluated for all extracts. The antioxidant capacity of different extracts was assessed using nine in vitro tests.

Results: The results show that ME had the highest total phenolic content (149.25±3.11 mg GAE/g of dry extract), the  aqueous extract had the highest tannins content (83.35±0.36 mg TAE/ g of dry extract), whereas, EE had the highest total flavonoid content (38.4±0.9 mg QE/ g of dry extract).The EE exhibited an interesting antioxidant activity using ABTS radical scavenging assay (IC50=0.0015 mg/ml) and the DPPH test (IC50=0.004 mg/ml), while EA showed an important activity in the hydroxyl radical scavenging test (IC50=0.08 mg/ml), H2O2, (IC50=0.015 mg/ml), iron chelating (IC50=0.5 mg/ml) and reducing power (EC50=0.03 mg/ml). The greatest activity in inhibiting the oxidation of β-carotene/ linoleic acid was induced by CE and EE extracts (93.95%, and 90.29%, respectively). All extracts showed a very strong antiperoxidant effect against FTC and MDA tests.

Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. leaves extracts have an important antioxidant activity which is most likely due to their polyphenolic content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dipole Moment, Solvation Energy, and Ovality Account for the Variations in the Biological Activity of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Fragments

Derick Erl P. Sumalapao, Jose Isagani B. Janairo, Nina G. Gloriani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38945

Objective: A computational approach was employed to determine the interaction of molecular descriptors and the biological activity of the different fragments of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs).

Methods: Using multiple linear regression analysis and leave-one-out validation method, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed to relate the biological activity (log IC50) of the different fragment-sized compounds against HIV-1 RT(WT) DNA-dependent DNA polymerase and molecular descriptors of these compounds.

Results: QSAR model identified dipole moment, solvation energy, and ovality of fragment-sized compounds to confer reverse transcriptase inhibitory action. A highly significant correlation with log P, molecular weight, polarizability, molecular energy, zero-point energy, constant volume heat capacity at 298 K, and entropy was identified to account for the variations in the potency of RTIs. An increase in ovality, log P, and molecular weight of the fragment-sized compound renders a more active reverse transcriptase inhibition.

Conclusion: The quality of the established QSAR model has been validated and demonstrates its potential as a tool for computational design and synthesis of next generation RTIs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Orange M2R and Green GS Dye Decolourizing Bacteria from Textile Sludge (Soil) Samples and Determination of Their Optimum Decolourization Conditions

Romana Siddique, Fahim Ahmed Alif

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38637

Objectives: Azo dye accounts for majorly produced synthetic dye substances in industries, posing a threat to all possible life forms. This study was focused to isolate azo dye “Orange M2R” and “Green GS” degrading bacterial strain from textile effluent soil samples and optimization of their optimum physio-chemical growth conditions.

Methodology: To achieve above-mentioned objective, sludge samples were collected from textile industrial area and were applied to 1%, 3% and 5% dye containing SM broth to observe the dye degrading capability of those samples that contain acclimatized bacteria. ABIS microbiology software (Advanced Bacterial Identification Software) was used to justify and determine the identity of these bacteria with the aid of results obtained from the biochemical tests that were undertaken.

Results: Bacterial strains identified in this study were Enterococcus termitisEnterococcus camelliaeBacillus farraginisBacillus muralisPaenibacillus maceransBacillus decolorationis, and Macrococcus brunensis. Out of these isolates Enterococcus termitisBacillus farraginisPaenibacillus maceransBacillus decolorationis emerged out to be most potent decolourizer, being selected for further studies. Bacillus farraginis was identified as the best decolourizer of OM2R (Orange M2R) dye that decolourized 98% of the dye and Paenibacillus macerans showed maximum decolourization on GGS(Green GS) dye that decolourized 97% of the dye. The effect of pH, NaCl, temperature and initial concentration of dye was studied with an aim to determine the optimal conditions required for maximum decolourization. The research showed different decolourization rate with varying parameters. The optimum pH for decolourization of OM2R and GGS dye was 7.0, the optimum NaCl concentration for decolourization was 2%, initial dye concentration was 1% and the temperature was 37°C for optimum decolourization by the selected isolates.

Conclusion: The findings are well acclimatized and have potentials for bioremediation in textile waste effluent treatment plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption Isotherm and Thermodynamic Profile of Hexavalent Chromium onto Lumbang (Aleurites moluccana) Activated Carbon Chitosan Composite Crosslinked with Epichlorohydrin

Nelson R. Villarante, Angelo Patrick R. Bautista, Derick Erl P. Sumalapao

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38998

Adsorption isotherm and thermodynamic profile of hexavalent chromium onto lumbang (Aleurites moluccana) activated carbon chitosan composite crosslinked with epichlorohydrin were studied. The optimum conditions were identified at pH 3, contact time of 75 min, adsorbent dose of 3 g/L, initial concentration of 60 ppm, and 30ºC temperature resulted to a removal efficiency of 93%. The composite has a round and elliptical adsorption sites, contains –OH and –NH2 functional groups, and has increased stability with epichlorohydrin crosslinking. The adsorption process is best characterized by the Langmuir isotherm suggesting a monolayer adsorption nature of Cr(VI). The adsorption kinetics obeyed the pseudo-second order model and the adsorption process is exothermic. The investigated adsorption phenomenon described a chemisorption process, with 21.32 kJ mol-1 mean free energy, due to the functional groups identified and the high porosity of the adsorbent surfaces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Structure and Nucleotide Sequences of Three Productivity Trait Genes, in Egyptian Buffalo

Othman E. Othman, Ahmed Abou-Eisha, Adel E. El-Din, Nadia A. Abo El-Maaty

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39001

One of the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt is buffalo, of river type. The marker assisted selection-depending on the promised genetic markers is considered to be the effective way for improvement of buffalo productivity. This work aimed to study the genetic structure and nucleotide sequences of three productivity genes namely; LGB, PIT-1, and POUF-1 in Egyptian buffalo. This study is performed by using genomic DNA, which was extracted from 100 female buffaloes. The DNA extracts were subjected to PCR by using some specific primers of the tested genes. The PCR products were digested with dedicated restriction enzymes like; HaeIII for LGB and HinfI for both PIT-1 and POUF-1 genes. Depending on the appearance of restriction sites in the amplified fragments; GG^CC for LGB/HaeIII and G^AATC for both PIT-1/HinfI and POUF-1/HinfI, digestion results also showed accordingly with the appearance like three, two and four digested fragments for LGBPIT-1 and POUF-1, respectively. As a result, the three tested productivity genes are found to be monomorphic in Egyptian buffalo with BB genotype. The nucleotide sequences of this genotype were submitted to GenBank under the accession numbers like JQ308794 (LGB), JQ885688 (PIT-1) and JQ885689 (POUF-1) respectively. As a conclusion, it can be said that irrespective of monomorphic genetic structure present in assessed DNA sequences of the Egyptian buffaloes, which ensures the production of good quality meat and milk, but still crossbreeds are highly needed for the betterment of the productivity.