Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Activities of Santolina chamaecyparissus Extracts

Meriem Djarmouni, Abderrahmane Baghiani, Moufida Adjadj, Lekhmici Arrar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39084

S. chamaecyparissus aerial parts were extracted with solvent of varying polarity: crude extract (CrE) chloroform extract (CHE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and aqueous extract (AE). The content of total phenolics, and flavonoids in all the extracts were determined with spectrophotometric methods. Among all the extracts analyzed, the EAE exhibited a higher phenolic and flavonoids content than other samples: 373.83 ± 0.23 mg gallic acid equivalent and 7.86 ± 61.51 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried weigh, respectively. CHE and EAE, showed a high inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) P>0.05 with IC50(concentration inhibitory of 50% of XO activity): (0.051± 0.0002 mg/ml) and (0.052±0.0003 mg/ml) respectively, followed by CrE (0.091±0.001 mg/ml). The inhibition of xanthine oxidase by CHE and EAE showed a less efficient than allopurinol (IC50 = 0.0082 ± 0.0005 mg/ml). The CrE clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced ear edema induced by PMA with 61.51%.  

Our results indicate that EAE possesses potent antioxidant and CE noticed anti-inflammatory properties, and might be valuable natural source that could be applicable to both the medical and food industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Health and Safety Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Wood and Metal Workers in Hawassa, Ethiopia

Atkilt Esaiyas, Habtamu Sanbata, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38958

Background: Workplace accidents affect young people and developing countries share the largest job related incidences and diseases. Micro and small enterprises (MSE) are in rapid expansion in Ethiopia and they consist mostly of young age groups.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Hawassa (Jan. to Mar., 2014), Ethiopia. The subjects were 382 respondents, all eligible workers at MSE wood and metal workshops in Hawassa. The study design was institution based cross-sectional and the data were collected by interviewing and administering semi-structured questionnaires which included demographic characteristics, and questions specifically designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were measured using composite score and data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 computer software to determine descriptive statistics.

Results: The response rate of the study was 92.7%. The majority, 84.9% (299), of the respondents was males and 15.1% (53) were females; 36.2% (128) were aged 25 – 29 years and 34.7% (123) completed secondary school. Regarding their work environment 94.2% (325) reported presence of excessive dust, 99.2% (350) disturbingly high sound, 89.5% (316) radiation from welding and 99.4% (338) used chemicals in the workplace during painting / spraying. Only 30.5% (108) knew that exposure to chemicals (inhaled sprays, spilled on body etc.) during work causes problem on health. Regarding knowledge related to occupational health and safety (OHS) 83.1% (294) responded 75% and above correctly while regarding attitude 87.2% (309) have shown to have 75% and above favorable attitude towards acceptable OHS principles. Concerning practice on using personal protective equipment (PPE) , out of the 6 PPE mentioned, only 37.3% (132) reported that they use three or more of them sometimes or always. Only 33.9% (120) and 5.4% (19) of the respondents reported that they had training on OHS before they started work and within the last one year respectively.

Conclusion and Recommendation: The overall knowledge, attitude and practice related to OHS MSE wood and metal workers in Hawassa pose a public health concern. This calls for urgent intervention in providing on job training as well as implementing safer work environment, medical checkups and improved pre-service training for new staff.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Effect of Rhizobia Isolated from Several Leguminous against Phytopathogenic Fungi

Lina Kanouni, Larbi Larous, Samia Mezaache-Aichour

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38161

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the antagonistic effect of ten isolated characterized Rhizobium sp. and three referenced strains against aggressive phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp., Humicola spp. and Cladosporium spp. isolated from infected and wilted plants in vitro and in vivo.

Study Design:  First, we have ten strains of rhizobia isolated from leguminous and characterized, after that,  some strains of fungi were isolated from infected  and wilt plants,  such as FusariumAspergillusPenicillium,  AlternariaHumicola and Cladosporium. Finally, The investigation of the potential of the isolated rhizobia and three referenced strains was evaluated in dual culture, in pots experiments and on seeds.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, between April and November 2016.

Methodology: Rhizobia isolates were identified upon their phenotypic traits as: the morphology of the colony, of the physiological characters (growth temperature, salt tolerance, resistance to antibiotics, metabolism of carbon source, generation time…) and also the production of extracellular metabolites as siderophores and proteases. Fungal isolates were identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characters. The antagonistic effect of rhizobia against phytopathogenic fungi was examined in vitro by: confrontation in Petri dishes and inoculation of seeds; and in vivo by inoculation of plants.

Results: The isolated rhizobia were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin with generation time ranged from 1.9 to 6.4 h, they were able to grow at temperatures from 4°C to 37°C, tolerate salt concentration (0.5 –2%) and produce siderophores and proteases. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the rhizobia isolates and the referenced strains against the fungi isolates in vitro and in vivo. In dual culture, all rhizobia isolates inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. The best disease control was obtained with isolate F3 from faba bean which inhibited the fungal growth with more than 70%. The highest inhibition growth was obtained against Alternaria spp.2, Penicillium spp.2, Cladosporium spp. and Humicola spp. with an inhibition rate ranging from 90 to 96%. In pot experiments, Rhizobia isolates from chickpea, lentil and faba bean reduced significantly all disease incidence  with more than 75%; where the best fight was observed in lentil plants, while in faba bean no wilted plants were observed. Seeds inoculated with rhizobia and fungi in Petri dishes showed that isolates from faba bean and lentil were the most effective in reducing fungi disease incidence.

Conclusion: Rhizobia have a high potentiality to inhibit the growth of tested pathogens and could be fielded within an integrated disease management package.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of rhBMP-2 and Chitosan in Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells into an Osteoblastic Lineage

Mindya Yuniastuty, Basril Abas, Endang W. Bachtiar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38859

Aims: To analyze the effect of rhBMP-2 and Chitosan in differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLC) into an osteoblastic lineage.

Study Design: This study was designed as in vitro study and osteogenic biomarkers were determined in the culture supernatant.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Oral Biology Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta 10430 Indonesia, January – September 2016.

Methodology: Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLC) were isolated from the root of vital teeth, followed by identification of stem cells by antibody anti  STRO-1. Chitosan was used at the concentration of 0.15%.  The culture cells were divided into four groups as follow, the control group (PDLC) and treatment groups with recombinant human Bone Morphogenic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), the combination chitosan-rhBMP-2 and chitosan only. The levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined by colorimetry and osteocalcin and collagen type I were measured using ELISA.
Results: The results showed that levels of ALP tended to increase is in all groups. At day 14, the highest levels of ALP was in chitosan treated group. The concentration of collagen type 1 managed to raise is in all groups on days 14, and the highest levels Collagen type 1 occurred in RH BMP-2 and chitosan treated cells, after that decrease in all groups until day 21(p < 0.05).  Osteocalcin concentration tended to increase is in all groups, and at days 21, the highest levels in with rhBMP-2 + chitosan.  

Conclusion: The rhBMP-2, chitosan, and its combination induce differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into the osteoblastic lineage.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Promising Efficacy of Probiotics, Casein Phosphopeptide and Casein Macropeptide as Dental Anticariogenic and Remineralizing Agents Part I; An In vitro Study

Hanaa Elgamily, Heba Salama, Hoda El-Sayed, Engie Safwat, Mohamed Abd El-Salam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38927

Objectives: To investigate the effect of different mixtures from nano casein phosphopeptides (CPP), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus B-445 (L. rhamnosus) and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) growth and its adhesion.

Methods: CPP was prepared from the tryptic digest of bovine casein and GMP by the action of chymosin on casein solution. Four mixtures namely: Group 1) Nano CPP; Group 2) Nano CPP+ ACP; Group 3)Nano CPP+ ACP + L. rhamnosus; and Group 4)Nano CPP+ ACP+ GMP were prepared and tested for its inhibitory activity against S. mutans growth and its adhesion to saliva-treated glass surfaces in comparison with a commercial product (GC MI paste plus) and chlorhexidine (0.2%) as a positive control.  The particle size and zeta potential of nano CPP and its complex with ACP were evaluated. Furthermore, the viability of L. rhamnosusin its mixture was determined during two weeks of storage at pH 6.8 and 8 respectively.

Results: Revealed that Nano CPP had an average particle size (7.75 nm) and zeta potential (-8.43 mV) lower than that of CPP+ACP mixture. Probiotic containing mixture exhibited inhibitory activity slightly less than the positive control at pH 6.8. All tested mixtures reduced the adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-treated glass surfaces and the highest was that containing probiotic and GMP. L. rhamnosus showed acceptable stability in CPP+ACP mixture during storage period.

Conclusions: All these findings suggest the use of probiotic, CPP+ACP mixture as a dental anticariogenic and remineralizing agents.