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Open Access Original Research Article

Reduction of Bacterial Proliferation by Zirconium Collar in Dental Implants

Alberto Maltagliati, Francesca Angiero, Samer Zaky, Sergio Blasi, Andrea Ottonello

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38270

The peri-implant bacterial colonization is one of the current major problems facing dental implants with no actual protocols for prevention. The use of zirconium for bacterial eradication has already been reported and discussed in the dental literature. In this study we evaluated for the first time the ability of a "hybrid" dental implant model – where the implant collar is made out of titanium and zirconium - to reduce the peri-implant bacterial colonization, using traditional implants from the same manufacturer as controls. The results of microbiological analysis and the evaluation of the classic parameters of an implant success confirmed that, in all the 30 patients in this study, the zirconium collar had a vital role in reducing peri-implant bacterial colonization, and that the "hybrid" implants show lower plaque index values, less bleeding and less marginal bone loss than the traditional implants. Our data therefore suggest that a zirconium collar can effectively reduce the bacterial colonization around a titanium implant favoring a better long-term prognosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Punica granatum

P. Naga Padma, Syed Thanveer Banu, S. Chaitanya Kumari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38894

Aim: The present study aimed at green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using various plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. It would also study the antibacterial effect of the synthesized copper nanoparticles.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Bhavan’s Vivekananda college of Science, Humanities and Commerce, Hyderabad, India. The duration of the study is for six months between May 2017 to October 2017.

Methodology: The aqueous solutions of different plant extracts were mixed with CuSO4 solution and incubated for green synthesis of stable copper nanoparticles. These were tested by UV-Visible spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Antibacterial tests of the biosynthesized nanoparticles were carried out on Gram-positive Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus by Agar well assay.

Results: The aqueous solutions of different plant extracts yielded stable copper nanoparticles as indicated by the O.D values tested using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The best plant extract that yielded higher amount of copper nanoparticles was fruit rind extract of Punica granatum. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be 56-59 nm, characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The synthesized copper nanoparticles exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

Conclusion: The copper nanoparticles can be green synthesized using fruit rind extract of Punica granatum and these can be used as efficient antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus and the study is significant currently as drug resistant infections of Staphylococcus aureus are gaining much prevalence and prominence.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Approach to Understand the Removal Efficiency of Some Anions in Well Water by Slow Sand Filtration

Barkouch Yassir, Zahar Chaimae, Ait Melloul Abdelaziz, El Khadiri Mohy Eddine, Pineau Alain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38905

Aims: Slow sand filtration (SSF) is a simple technique widely used for the treatment of drinking water. However, little attention has been accorded to the improvement of the understanding of this process model. The main objective of this work is to develop a numerical tool allowing the prediction and the evaluation of the efficiency of slow sand filtration to decontaminate contaminated well water.

Materials and Methods: This evaluation was done by comparing data from contaminated well water filtered through the laboratory columns with the same diameter (5 cm) but filled with sand to various heights (5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm).

Results: Decontamination efficiency of slow sand filtration was determined in terms of selected physicochemical parameters such as sulphates, chlorides and total hardness. Results indicated significant difference in levels of sulphates and chlorides in filtered water through the three sand bed heights whereby decontamination efficiency of these parameters was found to be better at the highest sand bed (15 cm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Platelet Activity of Ireshire Heifers Being on Supplementary Breeding

Ju. L. Oshurkova, I. N. Medvedev, L. L. Fomina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39094

The course of all the ontogenesis in cattle is closely connected with the dynamics of blood system indices which are largely integrated in the animals’ bodies. Interest to peculiarities of platelet activity in high-productive cows increases because of its great signification for the optimum of microcirculation, anabolism and maximal productivity. The aim of the research: to study peculiarities of platelet activity in healthy Ireshire heifers being on supplementary breeding. We examined 36 Ireshire heifers at the age of 12, 15 and 18 months which were on supplementary breeding. We applied hematological and statistical methods of investigation. The most active platelets’ aggregation was noted in response to adenosine diphosphate being maximal to the end of observation. Collagenic and ristomicinic aggregation had less evidence and similar directivity. Summarizing index value of platelets’ aggregation with three used inductors was equal to the end of observation to 25.6±0.05%, 10.0±0.26% and 10.3±0.39%, respectively. It indirectly pointed at high integrity of vessels’ endothelium in the animals and little concentration of von Willebrand’s Factor in their plasma. Disaggregative platelets’ activity in respect of all the applied inductors had an upward trend in the observed heifers counterbalancing the rise of aggregation. Detected low platelets’ activity in Ireshire heifers should be considered as the necessary condition for optimal provision of anabolic processes in their growing tissues and of the basis for their future high productivity. Received results can be used in future researches of Ireshire heifers as normative values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sodium Chloride Extract of Dacryodes edulis and Chrysophyllum albidum Seeds on Enteric Pathogens

A. Seghosime, A. B. Ebeigbe, S. Oduro-Kwarteng, R. Buamah, O. Oriakhi, J. A. M. Awudza

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39194

Effect of sodium chloride extract of Dacryodes edulis (African pear) and Chrysophyllum albidum (African star apple) seeds on enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli (ATCC25922); Salmonella typhi (clinical strain); Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical strain); Pseudomonas spp. (ATCC4853); Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212) and  Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) were investigated using agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution methods. Results revealed that the extracts have antimicrobial activity against the test organisms. In agar well diffusion method, the extracts were most effective at concentration 100 mg/ml as inhibition zone diameter (IZD) values ranges from 16.5 mm to 23 mm for African pear seed extract and 16.5 mm to 21.9 mm for African star apple seed extract. In the broth dilution method, the extracts were bacteriostatic at lower concentration and bactericidal at higher concentration against all test organisms.  Sodium chloride extract of African pear seed shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranges from 1.5625 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values ranges from 6.25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml respectively while sodium chloride extract of African star apple seed shows MIC values ranges from 6.25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml and MBC values ranges from 25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml respectively. In liquid broth medium, sodium chloride extract of African pear seed exhibited the highest activity against Pseudomonas as the least MIC (1.5625 mg/ml) and MBC (6.25 mg/ml) were recorded against the test organism. It is concluded that the sodium chloride extract of African pear and African star apple seeds showed potential antimicrobial activity of MIC and MBC ≤ 100 mg/ml, thus they have antimicrobial activity against enteric pathogens. Hence, sodium chloride will be useful for extracting bioactive agents in African pear and African star apple seeds, thus this will help reduce the cost of extraction and incidence of intestinal diseases.