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Open Access Original Research Article

New Source of Rutin from the Flowers of Cordia lutea (Boraginaceae)

Edmundo Arturo Venegas-​​Casanova, Segundo Guillermo Ruiz Reyes, José Gilberto Gavidia Valencia, Cosavalente Burgos Kevin Steve, Yuri Freddy Curo Vallejos, Juan Ernesto Valdiviezo Campos, Santiago Moisés Benites Castillo, Armando Cuéllar Cuéllar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39361

The native species Cordia lutea, is used in Peru by folk medicine in the treatment of liver diseases such as jaundice and others. From fluid extract of the flowers, flavonoid quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin) was isolated and identified. The relative purity was assay by HPLC and structural elucidation using 1H and 13C NMR spectral data in comparison with literature. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin), was the major component of the fluid extract obtained from C. lutea flowers, with a relative purity, after crystallization, of 97.55% and 8% yield from the extract. As a conclusion for this investigation, it is important to note, that with the fluid extract from the flowers of C. lutea it is possible the isolation of the flavonoid quercetin-3-O-rhamno glucoside (rutin) with high purity and yield. This compound was not previously described in the flowers of this plant species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic, Protein and FTIR Spectroscopic Comparison of Anterior and Posterior Deciduous Dental Pulp for Subsequent Obtention of SHED

Gustavo Jesus Vazquez-Zapien, Monica Maribel Mata-Miranda, Raul Jacobo Delgado-Macuil, Marlon Rojas-Lopez, Rosbelia Ramos-Roldan, Olga Gonzalez Aguilar, Virginia Sanchez-Monroy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38907

Background: Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED) were identified by Miura in 2003. SHED have been described as a suitable, accessible and potential source for regenerative medicine and therapeutic applications. However, the best group of deciduous teeth for the obtention of stem cells (SCs) has not been established. Therefore, this research aimed to determine the dental organs group from which SHED can be obtained with higher potentiality, considering their biomolecular features.

Methodology: Deciduous teeth from 64 healthy children were collected and divided into two groups: anterior and posteriors. Dental pulp tissue was removed to determine their genetic, phenotypic, and spectroscopic profiles by RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy respectively.

Results: The results showed a higher gene (CD73 and NANOG) and protein (NANOG and SOX2) expression of mesenchymal and pluripotent markers in anterior SHED. CD146 gene expression between the two groups shows no statistical significant difference. Furthermore, the analysis of deciduous dental pulps by FTIR spectroscopy showed spectral bands related to biological samples, indicating the higher state of potentiality in anterior deciduous dental pulps.

Conclusion: The deciduous dental pulp harbor a heterogenous population of SCs with different potentiality; however, the expression of multipotent and pluripotent markers was higher in the pulps from anterior deciduous teeth respect to posterior deciduous teeth. The storage and obtention of SHED from anterior teeth is more recommended respect to posterior teeth. However, it is necessary to analyze more stem cell markers and to study the differentiation capability of SHED.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methanol Extract Prepared from Leaf of Pistacia lentiscus on Plasma Antioxidant Activity and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Liver Tissue of Healthy Rats

Saliha Djidel, Amel Bouaziz, Assia Bentehar, Seddik Khennouf, Abderrahmane Baghiani, Saliha Dahamna, Smain Amira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39005

Aims: The objective of the present study is to estimate the effect of the methanol extract of Pistacia lentiscus (PL) on plasma antioxidant capacity and biomarkers of oxidative stress in liver tissue of healthy female rats.

Methodology: The present work assessments oral administration of methanol extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg during 14 days on plasma antioxidant activities using DPPH and reducing power tests. Levels MDA, GSH and catalase activity in liver tissue of healthy female rats were estimated.

Results: The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg during 14 days caused significant elevation of plasma antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay compared to the control. Also, evaluation of MDA levels revealed that the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced significantly the lipid peroxidation in liver tissues. Treatment with methanol extract at doses of 100, 200 showed no significant difference in GSH level in the liver when compared with control group. Moreover, the activity of catalase enzyme caused non significantly decreased in 100 and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Highest depletion of the antioxidant activity was reported in post administration of 400 mg/kg. Finally, the dose of 400 mg/kg of the methanol extract for 14 days leads to a decrease of GSH levels and catalase activity. For this reason, medicinal plants need a critical evaluation of dose administration to avoid its side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Broiler Chickens to Carica papaya and Talinium triangulare Leaf Meal under Normal and Subnormal Diets

B. E. Agboola, A. D. Ologhobo, I. O. Adejumo, G. O. Adeyemo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38144

The use of locally available and cheap feed ingredients has received particular attention as a viable alternative to the use of conventional feedstuffs in developing countries. Vegetable-based feeds are rich sources of essential plant amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Further to the rich contents mentioned, it has been established that green vegetable leaves are cheap and abundant sources of protein because of their ability to synthesize amino acids from a wide range of available primary materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of broiler chickens to Carica papaya and Talinium triangulare under normal and subnormal diets. In this study, the effects of C. papayaleaf meal and T. triangulare chopped leaves were assessed on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. Two hundred and seventy 1-d old Arbor acres broiler chicks were used for the study. Each treatment had 5 replicates with 6 birds per replicate. Normal diets and subnormal diets were compounded with varying amounts of ingredients. The test ingredients were supplied at the rate of 10% of the main diets. The design of the experiment was a completely randomized design. All the treatments with subnormal diets obtained higher feed intake than treatments with normal diets. Birds on subnormal diet mixed with C. papaya leaf meal (24.03%) obtained the highest packed cell volume. The haemoglobin concentrations followed a similar pattern. Normal diets compared with control for feed conversion ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Postmortem Diagnosis of Induced Fatal Anaphylactic Shock in Rats

Said Said Elshama, Rasha R. Salem, Hosam-Eldin Hussein Osman, Ayman El-Meghawry El-Kenawy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39315

Anaphylactic shock is a sudden and serious life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity leading to a rapid, irreversible fatal circulatory collapse. Postmortem diagnosis of fatal anaphylaxis is a very sophisticated task in forensic medicine; it is usually excluded as the cause of death due to lack of autopsy findings. This study aims to find more specific criteria for the postmortem diagnosis of induced fatal anaphylaxis in rats by assessing the levels of total tryptase, histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histological changes in the larynx, trachea, lung, heart, and spleen using light and electron microscopes. Sixty adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consisted of twenty rats. The first (control) group received distilled water while the second and third groups received a single intravenous dose of ovalbumin and penicillin G, respectively, two weeks after active subcutaneous sensitization. The fatal anaphylactic shock led to a significant increase in the levels of total tryptase, histamine and immunoglobulin E (IgE) along with histological changes in the larynx, trachea, lung, heart, and spleen that vary its severity according to the anaphylaxis cause. Postmortem diagnosis of fatal anaphylaxis depends on multi- factorial criteria that include biochemical, immunological and histological findings.