Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular and Bacteriological Diagnosis of Mycoplasma Species Infection in Camels at Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia

Alaa A. Mohamed, Magdy H. Yassin, Mohamed M. Hassan, Ayman M. Sabry, Amena M. Ibrahim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39063

Aims: We designed this work to confirm if the PCR technique is more rapid and specific than traditional diagnostic method by culture.

Study Design: In vitro experimental and molecular study.

Place and Duration of Study: Genetic engineering and biotechnology unit, Taif University, Saudi Arabia from October, 2016 to September, 2017.

Methodology: Ninety three nasal and tracheal swabs and lung samples were collected from camel in Taif slaughterhouse, Saudi Arabia. All samples were tested by culture and PCR method using universal primer of 16S rRNA gene.

Results: There was no positive result obtained by culture method, but 30 (32.2%) of nasal swabs were positive using PCR method. Moreover, we used species-specific primers for Mycoplasma arginine, M. bovis and M. mycoides subspecies mycoides to identify the isolates at species level, but no positive results obtained with specific primers. These positive samples could be other Mycoplasma species.

Conclusion: These results indicate that PCR technique is a specific molecular detection technique for Mycoplasma identification, and more sensitive test. These techniques are simple and fast methods to detect and isolate infected animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microrheological Properties of Erythrocytes in Persons of the 2nd Mature Age with Osteochondrosis of the 2nd Degree

A. A. Bikbulatova, E. G. Andreeva, I. N. Medvedev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/37265

The presence of osteochondrosis in a body negatively influences many blood indices. At the given state we consider to be very interesting some peculiarities of erythrocytes’ rheological characteristics which determine the processes of microcirculation and metabolism in tissues. Detection of their state at developing osteochondrosis can help in a fuller understanding of its progression mechanisms and search of variants of the given process’ inhibition. The aim is to estimate erythrocytes’ microrheological properties in people of the second mature age with osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree. Within our research, we took 37 healthy persons of both sexes of the second mature age and also 43 people of both sexes of the same age with osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree. We applied biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation. The quantity of acylhydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-products in plasma of the examined persons with osteochondrosis surpassed the control values by 38.4% and 37.4%, respectively. It was accompanied by imbalance of metabolites of arachidonic acid: the level of thromboxane B2 in their plasma rose by 30.6%, and the level of 6-keto-prostaglandin F lowered by 15.9%. At the same time, the quantity of nitric oxide metabolites in their plasma lowered by 23.6%. The quantity of acylhydroperoxides in their erythrocytes rose by 30.0% and malon dialdehyde – by 36.7%. The people with osteochondrosis were noted to have content lowering of erythrocytes-discocytes in blood by 12.7%. At the same time, the quantity of reversibly and irreversibly changed erythrocytes’ forms in them increased by 35.7% and in 2.5 times, respectively. Erythrocytes’ aggregative properties in people with osteochondrosis turned out to be strengthened. It was pointed by the increase of erythrocytes’ summary involvement into aggregates by 32.9% in them and number growth of these aggregates - by 33.3%. People of the second mature age with osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree are characterized by strengthening of lipid peroxidation processes in plasma and erythrocytes. It is accompanied by worsening of erythrocytes’ microrheological properties. Given changes can negatively influence the processes of microcirculation and worsen the trophism of tissues, including spinal column, what promotes progression of osteochondrosis. So, it is necessary to search the variants of inhibition of osteochondrosis progression and lowering of its manifestations’ sharpness. At the same time, it’s very important to take into account the capacities of the tested medicinal approaches. Their impact on erythrocytes’ microrheological properties can be rather great.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Antihemolytic, Antihyperuricemic, Anti-inflammatory Activity of Algerian Germander Methanolic Extract

Imane Krache, Naouel Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Sorya Ouhida, Baghiani Abderrahmane, Lekhmici Arrar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38232

The Germander (Teucrium polium) is commonly used as a medicinal plant in Algeria against a variety of human diseases. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant, anti-hemolytic and antihyperuricemic effects of the Algerian germander (Teucrium polium L.) extract. T. polium witch was collected from Bordj Bouarreridj, Algeria and extracted with methanol to give the methanolic extract (TPME). The objective of this work is to disassemble, at first, the antioxidant effect of TPME in vivo and in vitro, secondarily to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and finally to study for the first time the hypouricemic activity. The quantification of polyphenols and flavonoids showed that the TPME contains 160.72±0.78 µg EAG/mg of polyphenols and 37.96±0.317 µg EQ/mg of flavonoids. The antioxidant activities were carried out in mice by an in vivo assay, the plasma ability to inhibit DPPH radical and FRAP. TPME showed a protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocytes. The total antioxidant defence system appears to be enhanced in the plasma, by increased FRAP levels probably due to higher levels of polyphenols in the Teucrium polium extract. The treated group showed an essential activity in the DPPH test compared to Vit C and control groups (28.64±5.84% vs 47.27±6.78% and 21.42±3.89%, respectively). The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and red blood cells was determined using the kinetics of hemolysis by the determination of HT50 (hemolysis half-life). The HT50 which was 179.6±10.53 min for treated group for, 158.2±3.85 for Vit C group and 146.5±1.78 min for the control, respectively. The present work demonstrated that Teucrium polium extract exerts a strong in vivo free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. These activities are probably related to polyphenols and flavonoids. Hyperuricemia witch is induced by injection of potassium oxonate "PO", the uric acid, urea and creatinine were measured in plasma and supernatant of the liver. To evaluate their hypouricemic effect, TPME was administered intraperitoneally to potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. TPME caused a decrease in plasma uric acid (3.3±0.18 mg/l) compared to control group (1.48±0.07 mg/l), almost the same value of uric acid of "PO" group. For "OP" group, value of uric acid in plasma is increased 4 times (6.33±1.22 mg/l) and almost 2 times for liver supernatant (31.36± 5.4 mg/l), the administration of 10 mg/kg of allopurinol decreased uric acid levels to normal (1.89±0.32 mg /l, 16.36±1.03 mg /l, respectively for plasma and supernatant). The findings data for the supernatant didn’t show any significant decrease in plasma and liver uric acid comparing the urea level of "OP" group (0.48 g/l); we can conclude that the rate of urea and creatinine after treatment with plant extract is normal and that the results of this study indicate the absence of renal damage in mice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of TPME in vivo The administration of TPME (100 mg/kg body wt.), reduced ear edema induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), achieving a low degree of anti-inflammatory activity (%I = 18.46±1.59%), the effect was comparable with that of diclofenac used as a reference drug (%I = 38.84±1.87 %). The histopathological analysis indicated that the treatment with TPME led to a moderate decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate with a persistence of the oedema, against the injection of diclofenac, led to a significant reduction of the leucocytes.

These results support the use of this plant in traditional medicine for inflammation disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differential Response of Fresh Water Algae Ankistrodesmus acicularis and Anabaena flos-aquae to Dichlobenil Exposures

Azza Moustafa Abd El-Aty, Mohammed Anwar El-Dib

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39514

The massive use of herbicides may harm the growth of algae, which in turn might disturb the balance of the aquatic ecosystem. Herein the physiological as well as the biochemical responses of two fresh water algae namely Ankistrodesmus acicularis (Chlorophyta) and Anabaena flos-aquae (Cyanobacteria) to different concentrations of dichlobenil were assessed. Parameters including chlorophyll (a) Chl (a) content, EC50 values, carbohydrate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents as well as the uptake of dichlobenil by both algal species were tested. The results indicated that a significant decrease in chlorophyll (a) content of both algal species to intermediate and high concentration of dichlobenil, whereas stimulative effect of low concentration of dichlobenil on Chl (a) content were recorded. Attainable results derived by probits analysis revealed that the EC50 values for both algae at 5th and 7th days approximate each other. Additionally, drastic decrease (98%) in ATP content was observed at 8.0 mg/L dichlobenil treatment in case of Ankistrodesmus acicularis. Furthermore, Anabaena flos-aquae cells activity was enhanced by the application of low and intermediate concentrations of dichlobenil (0.25-4.0 mg/L). Higher concentration level (16.0 mg/L) led to relative decrease in ATP content. Ankistrodesmus acicularis was found to be more sensitive than Anabaena flos-aquae. The uptake of dichlobenil was best ascribed to a pseudo-first order rate kinetic. The specific uptake rate constants of dichlobenil in case of Ankistrodesmus acicularis were relatively lower than the corresponding rates exhibited by Anabaena flos-aquae. In sum, the uptake of dichlobenil by algae may present environmental hazards and could affect the human health, through accumulation in the food chain.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Adrenomedullin in Trophoblast Invasion

Kanchi Ravi Padma, Penchalaneni Josthna

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38692

The Adrenomedullin peptide hormone has a potent vasodilatory activity. Nevertheless this novel peptide has exposed to be almost a ubiquitous peptide, with the many number of tissues and cell types synthesizing adrenomedullin. Adrenomedullin (ADM) and its related family peptides are calcitonin gene-related peptides (α and β-CGRPs), and intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD/ADM2) which play vital role as regulators of vascular tone and cardiovascular advances in vertebrates. Current research into their functions in reproduction has acknowledged the function of these peptides and their cognate receptors (calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein (CLR/RAMP) receptors) in fetal cum maternal blood circulation, feto-placental and uteroimplantation development along with that of female gamete development as well as gamete movement in the oviduct. Moreover, recent findings have enlightened the novelty, potential opportunities for the deterrence and treatment of aberrant pregnancies such as pregnancy-stimulated hypertension, preeclampsia, and IUGR. Conversely, chief efforts are still required to clarify the relationships between evident components of the CLR/RAMP signaling pathway and aberrant pregnancies before CLR/RAMP receptors can develop targets for clinical management. With this comprehension, this review summarizes current progression with specific focus on role of adrenomedullin during early implantation.