Open Access Minireview Article

Periodontitis: A Cellular Tactic to Escape Cancer

Luay Thanoon Younis, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Hassan, Tara Bai Taiyeb Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38291

During acute inflammation of gingiva (gingivitis), the cells can resist apoptosis and, at the same time, serve as a barrier to tumour formation. However, during chronic inflammation (periodontitis), the cells will undergo degradation which also helps in tumour restraining. Unlike the cellular senescence during cancer, periodontal cells undergo a unique senescence activity due to the microbial infection from the dental biofilm. The distinctive senescence activity of the inflamed periodontal cells results in the cell cycle arrest which leads to an inevitable degradation of periodontal tissues superpose the regeneration of them. If this activity is not resolved, continuous destruction of the supporting periodontal tissues may eventually result in the loss of teeth. In this mini-review, we discussed briefly the cellular senescence and its sequelae in periodontitis and cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection and Control of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Using Solanum nigrum Extract as Antibacterial in Meat Products

Gamal M. Hamad, Ahmed M. Zeitoun, Marwa M. Abu-Serie, Elsayed E. Hafez

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38404

Introduction: Foodborne pathogenic bacteria cause many diseases for the human after eating the spoiled food. For that reason, different meat products produced by different companies in Egypt were collected (during May-Sept 2017), and subjected to microbial analysis.

Aims: The antibacterial activity of the solanum nigrum extract against the foodborne Pathogenic bacteria isolated from the collected meat samples such as; Salmonella sp, E.coli, E.coli H7, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus were evaluated and detection by Multiplex PCR.

Methodology: Multiplex PCR using different primers specific for either structure or function genes for the most common food born bacteria was approached for detection of the existing bacterial strains in the collected samples. However, the selective media results were insured by the multiplex PCR. Antibacterial activity of S. nigrum leaves extract  against  Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

Results: The antibacterial activity of S. nigrum leaves extract was tested against the isolated foodborn bacteria; Salmonella sp, E.coli, E.coli H7, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus areus, and streptococcus pyogenes) from the collected meat samples, the results showed that the diameter of the inhibition zones was ranged from 1.5 to 2.6 cm. The highest antibacterial activity was demonstrated against Bacillus cerueus and E.coli H7 but the lowest activity was observed with Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC for the plant extract was 12.5 mg/ml. The S. nigrum antibacterial activity may result in the high content of phenolic compounds and Flavonoids in its extract. Conclusion: PCR is more acqurate than the selective media method to Detection Foodborn Pathogenic Bacteria and S. nigrum extract could be used as control agent against the foodborne Pathogenic bacteria in processed meats

Conclusion: PCR is more acqurate than the selective media method to Detection Foodborn Pathogenic Bacteria and S. nigrum extract could be used as control agent against the foodborne Pathogenic bacteria in processed meats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Yoghurt from Combination of Goat and Cow Milk

Marina Temerbayeva, Maksim Rebezov, Eleonora Okuskhanova, Oksana Zinina, Olga Gorelik, Oksana Vagapova, Tatiana Beginer, Svetlana Gritsenko, Ainur Serikova, Zhanibek Yessimbekov

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38800

This study describes the technology of yoghurt preparation from goat and cow milk in combination ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70 and 0:100. The formulation of yoghurt includes the mixture of goat and cow milk, pectin LM-106AS and YM-115-L, prebiotic lactitol and Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus ferments. Goat milk is a rich source of vitamin A, containing up to 42.3% more than that of cow's milk. Vitamins of B group were not significantly different. In comparison to cow's milk, goat milk had more vitamin C and E. Combination of goat and cow milk improved the sensory parameters of taste, color and flavor.  The yoghurt prepared from the mixture of goat and cow milk in proportion of 30:70 contains 2.8% protein, 4.0% fat and 14.2% carbohydrate; satisfies the sensory properties and meet the requirements of standard specification for yoghurts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Leaf Gas Exchange and Secondary Metabolites of Orthosiphon stamineus as Affected by Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Application

Ayu Izera Izad, Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38113

Aims: This study was conducted to study the growth, leaf gas exchange and secondary metabolites of Orthosiphon stamineus as affected by Multiwalled carbon nanotubes application (MWCNT).

Study Design: Orthosiphon stamineus were exposed to four different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) concentration (0, 700, 1400 and 2100 mg L-1). The experiment was organized in a randomized complete block (RCBD) design with three replications. Each experimental unit consisted of twelve plants, and there were a total of 144 plants used in the experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science Universiti Putra Malaysia between November 2016 to March 2017.

Methodology: Each plant was watered with 50 mL of MWCNTs solution in week 2 and 9. The leaves number were counted manually and the total plant biomass was taken by calculating the dry weight of root, stem, and leaf per seedling The total chlorophyll content in the leaves was measured using a SPAD chlorophyll meter. The leaf gas exchange was determined using LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis system. Total phenolics and flavonoid were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

Results: It was found that application of MWCNTs would reduce the growth characteristics of this plant that was shown by decreased leaf numbers, total biomass and total chlorophyll content (TCC). As MWCNTs concentration increases from 0 > 2100 mg L-1, the leaf gas exchange parameter also shows reduced patterns. Generally, as the rate of MWCNTs increased from 700 > 2100 mg L-1 MWCNTs reduce the net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and increased the plant water use efficiency. The production of the secondary metabolites was directly dependable on MWCNTs concentration. As the rate was enhanced from 0 > 700 > 1400 > 2100 mg L-1 the production of total phenolics and flavonoids was enhanced.

Conclusion: The current study revealed that the high application of MWCNTs concentration reduce the growth rate of O. stamineus, leaf gas exchange and simultaneously increase the production of secondary metabolites.

Open Access Review Article

The Arteriolar Vasodilatation Model of Vibrio cholerae Induced Diarrhoeal Disease

Michael L. Lucas

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-27
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38824

Secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by enterotoxins produced by pathogenic bacteria is characterised by severe fluid loss into the intestine. A prevalent explanation for such high rates of loss, such as occur in episodes of cholera, is that intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes) actively secrete chloride ion into the lumen. Fluid is drawn into the lumen because of the osmotic pressure difference that is created across the mucosa. Widely proposed as the cause of many forms of secretory diarrhoea, the enterocyte based paradigm displaced an earlier model of secretion i.e. fluid filtration caused by increased capillary hydrostatic pressure, possibly coupled with increased hydraulic conductivity. This would be aggravated by any concurrent inhibition of fluid absorption if it occurred. In the earlier and alternative paradigm, pathophysiological reductions in smooth muscle tone elevate capillary pressure, thereby increasing the hydrostatic pressure gradient that forces fluid from the capillary into the interstitial space and thence into the lumen. In this review, the present and historical evidence for the vasodilatation view of secretory diarrhoeal disease is presented, together with past challenges of this concept, particularly those involving the erroneous equating of solute permeability with hydraulic conductivity. It can be seen that the physical forces model of altered Starling forces combined with enhanced fluid permeation explains more experimental findings than the cellular based enterocyte model can. Several key past papers advocating enterocyte secretion in which the capillary vasodilatation model was also discounted, were examined for the inherent fallacies within the arguments that were proposed. Where possible, quantitative arguments are proposed that indicate that is it the combination of capillary vasodilatation combined with increased tight junctional hydraulic conductivity that causes profuse secretion, made worse by any concurrent inability to absorb fluid. To assist the general physiological reader, an appendix reviews Bernoulli’s principle of flow within tubes and explains the arguably counter-intuitive phenomenon that vasodilatation increases capillary pressure because of a velocity reduction within a dilated segment.