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Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic and Reduced Mineral Fertilisation on pH, Nutrient Content and Microbial Properties of Acid Soil

Daniel Kofi Boafo, Boonsong Kraisornpornson, Somrak Panphon, Bright Emmanuel Owusu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39350

Aim: This study was carried out to ameliorate acid sulphate soil (ASS), improve soil nutrient content and the soil quality by employing the use of organic and reduce mineral fertilisation.

Study Design: Treatments were arranged according to a completely randomised block design, in triplicates in a greenhouse.

Methodology: Three fertiliser regimes at three doses (mineral N, P, K (MIN-control (CK), NPK,2NPK), empty fruit bunch compost (COM-CKEFB2EFB) and poultry manure (MAN-CKPM2PM)) were used. The effect of organic and reduce mineral fertilisation on soil pH, nutrient level, microbial count (colony forming unit (CFU)), microbial biomass (Cmic) and enzyme activity were investigated.

Results: The study revealed that the MAN (PM and 2PM) led to a remarkable increase in bacterial and fungal CFU, Cmic, microbial activity, soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient content (N, P and K). MAN also stimulated enzyme activities (β-glucosidase (BG), acid phosphate (ACP) and protease (PRO)), but it did not affect the pH of the acid soil later. Soil pH decreased and NPK and 2NPK were not significant. However, microbial count was decreased significantly at 2NPK compared to the control even though the nutrient level was elevated to some extent. In COMsoil pH and nutrient level increased, but the fungal CFU, Cmic and BG were significantly low. Considering the high heavy metal content of the compost we ascribed these observations to a disturbance from the metal contamination due to high qCO2 values at the end of the study, The effect of dose was most pronounced in MAN and least pronounced in MIN.

Conclusion: Our result suggests that, for amelioration and quality improvement of ASS of tropical coastal agroecosystem, manure fertilisation supplemented with lime or EFB compost (of good quality) could be recommended while maintaining favourable moisture conditions in the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Activators and Inhibitors of α-glucosidase from Penicillium chrysogenum

Hamed M. El-Shora, Mohsen E. Ibrahim, Mohammad W. Alfakharany

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38408

α-glucosidase (EC: from Penicillium chrysogenum Thom ATCC 10106 was induced by GSH at the lower concentrations. H2O2 was inhibitor at all tested concentrations and the IC50 was 92.2%v/v. AMP, ADP and ATP enhanced the activity revealing that α-glucosidase is endothermic enzyme. The chelating agents are ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), α-α-dipyridyl and o-phenanthroline inhibited the enzyme. IC50 for these three compounds were 7.1, 10.2 and 10.9 mM, respectively. The highest activity of α-glucosidase was recorded at 150 mM phosphate buffer. Mannitol as polyol protected the enzyme against heat inactivation. The five sugars trehalose, lactose, raffinose, glucose and sucrose protected α-glucosidase against thermo-inactivation at 60ºC. Also, sarcosine as a product of glycine provided α-glucosidase with appreciable thermostability at 60ºC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics of Diatoms in a Spring-Neap Tidal Cycle in an Estuarine Creek of the Bonny River System

John Onwuteaka, Choko Onyinye Prince

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38457

The present study focused on the aspects of diatom population changes through the spring-neap-spring tidal phases along the Elechi creek - an estuary of the Bonny River. Water samples at high and low tide were collected during a cycle of spring-neap-spring cycle between September and November 2015. Diatoms were counted at different magnifications of x250 and x400. Counting was in 100 fields of view along several transects. Total diatoms were calculated as a relationship between the area of grid (mm2), number of grids counted and area of counting chamber (1000 mm2). Diatoms density ranged from 1678 cells L-1 (high tide) to 3731 cells L-1 (low tide) with a mean value of 8.87 ± 6.64 cells L-1. During the lunar phases diatoms abundance ranged from 431 ± 0.2 cells L-1 (last quarter) to 396 ± 0.2 cells L-1 (new moon), to 430 ± 0.3 cells L-1 (full moon), to 421 ± 0.2 cells L-1 (first quarter). The result revealed evidence of changes in diatom abundance and variability. At low tide, the abundance and variability of diatom was higher than the observation at high tide. There was also a significant difference between mean counts of the diatoms during various moon phases; but there was no significant difference in the abundance between spring and neap tide. These findings are crucial for ecological inference during environmental assessment surveys. A consideration of these factors is suggested as necessary to avoid poor estimates that can drastically alter impact assessment conclusions.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Passage Effect on the Senescence Profile of Cryopreserved Bone Marrow and Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

H. D. Ismail, S. Arif, J. A. Pawitan, R. Anggraeni

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39183

Background: Although bone marrow serves as the ‘gold standard’ MSC source, adipose tissue has become a promising alternative source. Passage and cryopreservation are two effective methods to multiply, pool, and store MSC without altering its function

Aims: To investigate the passage effects on the senescence profile of cryopreserved bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

Study Design: Analytical observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Stem Cell Medical Technology Integrated Service Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia—Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, during the period of April to September 2016.

Methodology: We analyzed the viability, cell size, population doubling time (PDT), percentage of senescent cells, and colony forming unit. Samples were bone marrow and adipose MSCs at passage one, which was cryopreserved for the first and second time. Numerical data were analyzed using the  Student’s T test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.  

Results: Both in once and twice cryopreservation group, PDT and senescent cell percentage of bone marrow and adipose tissue MSCs differed significantly, where the PDT senescent cell percentage values of bone marrow MSCs were higher in all passages compared to adipose tissue. Regarding 30% confluence cell size and viability, significant differences between once and twice cryopreservation group varied and did not show any trend. The cell size and viability were less 2500 µm2, and more than 85%, respectively. Therefore, the difference in cell size at 30% confluence and viability might be regarded as normal variations.

Conclusion: Cryopreserved adipose-derived MSCs showed better results compared to cryopreserved bone marrow-derived MSCs in terms of population doubling time (PDT) and senescence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Variations in Climatic Factors and Some Cultural Practices on Knot Disease Development on Oleaster and Olive Tree (Olea europaea L,) Northwest of Morocco

Youssef Rhimini, Abdelaziz Bouaichi, Mohamed Chliyeh, Soukaina Msairi, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Rachid Benkirane, El Hassan Achbani, Allal Douira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38771

The present study is conducted to know the effect of certain cultural practices and the variation of temperature and humidity (bioclimatic stage, slope exposure) on the distribution and importance of the development of tuberculosis disease of olive trees, caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi(PSS), in  Northwest of Morocco. 1584 trees of oleaster and olive trees (cuttings and grafts) were observed during the period 2013-2014 in several groves in the northwest regions of Morocco. The percentage of infection was calculated by the number of olive trees showing the symptoms of tuberculosis caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. The intensity of the disease in the oleaster and the olive tree was determined by counting the number of knots.

The prospection was showed that olive plots are more or less attacked by tuberculosis in the northwest part region of Morocco and more apparent in olive trees in development station in Zoumi and in Boukkara (North and West oriented slopes of 68% and 28% respectively). The percentage of infection was very high in oleaster and graft plants (31% and 28% respectively) in two humid stations (Zoumi and Boukkara). The intensity of the tuberculosis disease showed that oleaster trees are most attacked. The development of olive trees is highly influenced by the symptoms in branches. The fruit size and weight were significantly higher in healthy olive trees than in those showing the symptoms of tuberculosis.