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Open Access Original Research Article

Neofusiccocum parvum as Uncommon Fungal Species (or Emerging Pathogen) on Strawberry Plants in Morocco

Najoua Mouden, Rachid Benkirane, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Allal Douira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38606

During a survey on fungi associated with decline symptoms on strawberry plant of Venicia variety, one species belonging to the Botryosphaeriaceae family was isolated. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, this species identified as Neofusicoccum parvum was reported for the first time in Morocco. To verify the pathogenicity of the fungus, detached leaves of three strawberry varieties were inoculated artificially by depositing over their intact surface mycelia plug or conidial suspension from Nparvum. Severity index was greater on festival leaves reaching 88% compared to 77.73% on Sabrina. In the third treatment, Guariguette showed a low susceptibility with a severity index in order of 25.07%. Conidia concentration on the leaf surface of the Festival and Sabrina strawberry leaves was respectively 1.62 105and 1.2 105 conidia cm-2. Otherwise, in the second treatment, it has been reduced to less than 1.41105 1.16 and 105 conidia.cm-2 on leaves of Festival and Sabrina respectively. After inoculation, the fungus was re-isolated from the lesions to verify Koch’s postulates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotection Effects of Celastrus paniculatus Seed Oil against Monosodium Glutamate in Human IMR-32 Cells

Naumita Shah, Ankit Nariya, Ambar Pathan, Alpesh Patel, Shiva Shankaran Chettiar, Devendrasinh Jhala

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39256

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (CPO) against monosodium glutamate in human IMR-32 cells. 

Study Design: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil used historically in Indian subcontinent for its neuro-enhancement property and also considered to have free radical scavenging activity.

Methodology: In present study we have employed IMR-32, a neuroblastoma cells as our model system and utilized monosodium glutamate (MSG) a widely used food additive and proven inducer of free radicals to study the ameliorative effect of CPO against induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells.

Results: Results showed that CPO ameliorates total protein level, decreases protein carbonyl and lipid peroxidation levels (p<0.001) as well as enhances the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase (p<0.001) under oxidative stress conditions. Further we found that CPO increases the free radical scavenging capacity of cell by enhancing (p<0.001) glutathione level and help its regeneration by revitalizing the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase enzymes.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that CPO has antioxidant property and proved to have ameliorative role against free radicals induced neuronal impairment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Diversity and Its Effect on Growth and Development of Leek Plants (Allium porrum L.)

Nawal Hibilik, Karima Selmaoui, Soukaina Msairi, Jihane Touati, Mohamed Chliyeh, Afifa Mouria, Mariam Artib, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Rachid Benkirane, Allal Douira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38638

The effect of a composite endomycorrhizal inoculum, native to the rhizosphere of the olive tree, was studied on the growth of leek plants (Allium porrum L.). Inoculation of leek plants was carried out by contacting the root system of leeks with the inoculum endomycorrhizal derived from the olive tree rhizosphere. After five months of inoculation, a significant effect is observed on the growth of the inoculated plants according to witnesses. Indeed, the average values of the aerial weight (11.62 g) and root weight (18.52 g), the diameter (0.5 cm) and the number of leaves (7) of the inoculated plants are higher than those noted in the control plants, respectively 4.42 g, 7.95 g, 0.3 cm, 5.57. Moreover, the frequency and intensity of mycorrhization, respectively 96.66% and 50.33%, the arbuscules contents (44.33%) and vesicles (32.44%) are very important. The roots of control plants are not mycorrhizal. The average number of spores formed in the rhizosphere of the inoculated plants is 160 spores per 100 g of soil. These spores are those of 85 endomycorrhizal species belonging to 16 different genera: Glomus (34 species), Acaulospora (18 species), Gigaspora (5 species), Entrophospora (3 species), Scutellospora (5 species), Pacispora (2 species), Claroideoglomus (2 species), Dentiscutata (1 species), Septoglomus (1 species), Paraglomus (2 species), Rhizoglomus (2 species), Ambispora (3 species), Cetraspora (1 species), Funneliformis (1 species), Diversispora (4 species) and Viscospora (1 species). Statistical analyzes were performed by analysis of variance by the ANOVA test at the 5% level using the STATISTICA software. Leek, is a mycotrophic plant that can be used to multiply an endomycorrhizal inoculum suitable for use in nurseries, and to produce seedlings of different plant species that are vigorous and resistant to pathogens and water stress after transplantation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variations in Biting Density and Infectivity of Simulium damnosum Complex in Ezeagu and Oji-River Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

F. M. Chikezie, N. R. Uzoigwe, K. N. Opara, E. K. Ezihe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38352

Background and Objectives: Onchocerciasis is a parasitic filarial disease of the tropics, having serious effects on global public health and the economy of endemic countries. Nigeria is among the most endemic countries, necessitating much research and control program interests. This study determined the rate of transmission of onchocerciasis in Oji-River and Ezeagu Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Human landing sampling method was used to collect black flies.  Parity assessment was conducted to determine the age of fly populations. Parous flies were further dissected to detect the presence or absence of Onchocerca larvae. Biting rates and transmission potentials were calculated using standard methods. The principal vector groups in the study area were identified morphologically.

Results: A total of 352 adult female flies were collected during the study period. These were identified as members of the forest species of the S. damnosum complex. There were significant differences between monthly abundances of black flies caught during the entire study period (P < 0.04). Comparison of the monthly biting rates (MBRs) showed a significant difference in (P < 0.02). The MBR was lowest in February but highest in October. Generally, parity rate of over 50 % was observed throughout the period except for November. None of the flies dissected was infective. Diurnal biting activities of black flies between the months were significantly different from each other (P < 0.01).       

Conclusions: Onchocerciasis transmission is low in the studied area, and is largely by means of the forest black flies as these were the only observed group. None of the dissected flies was found to be infective. The findings of this study will be of tremendous benefit to policy makers in the National Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme. It calls for a continuous monitoring of onchocerciasis disease conditions in the study area.

Open Access Review Article

Colon Cancer Detection Methods – A Review

B. Saroja, A. Selwin Mich Priyadharson

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/37826

Aim: Colon is one of the major constituent of the large intestine; occurrence of cancer in it is one of the burning issues that remain unresolved. A large number of people get died every year in this problem.

Study Design: In the field of medical image processing the detection of Colon cancer is a big challenge. So far, many research works are proposed, however, no research and investigations are found to bring up the best technique to assess the disease.

Place and Duration of Study: Several strategies, in view of the spatial analysis of colon biopsy images, and serum and gene analysis of colon samples, have been proposed in such manner.

Methods: Quick advancement of colon cancer detection methods, are yet to be analyzed by the help of this particular work which ensures to coming up with best strategies.

Results: In this review, we arrange the procedures on the premise of the adopted system and basic data set, and give a detailed description of methods in every category. Also, this study gives a far extensive examination of different colon cancer detection categories, and of multiple procedures inside every category.

Conclusions: Further, the majority of the procedures have been assessed on comparative data set to give a reasonable performance correlation. Ultimately this review can helpful for the researches to proceed their research in the field of colon cancer detection.