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Open Access Original Research Article

Antimutagenic Effect of Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha inchi) Oil in BALB/c Mice

Jorge Luis Arroyo-Acevedo, Oscar Herrera-Calderon, Cesar Braulio Cisneros-Hilario, Roberto Chávez-Asmat, Andrea Anampa-Guzmán, Edwin Enciso-Roca, Martin Condorhuaman-FIgueroa, Bertha Pari-Olarte

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38987

Aims: Oils with high levels of omega-3 are being commercialized as the natural supplement to avoid serious consequences related to metabolic syndrome. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil is a natural product used as a nutraceutical in Peru. Otherwise, genotoxicity is the main test for assessing the toxicity of drugs, food and other substances. Sacha inchi is known as an oil with high content of omega-3 and others polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of this study was to determine the antimutagenic effect of Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha inchi) oil in BALB/c mice.

Study Design: Sacha inchi oil was obtained using standardized methods in order to determine its antimutagenic effect in BALB/c mice by using micronucleus test, according to the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Experimental Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru, from January to February 2017.

Methodology: A total of 100 Balb/C albino mice (20 - 30 g) of male sex were randomly divided into five groups (n = 20). The groups were normal saline group (NS), cyclophosphamide group (CP; 40 mg/kg i.p.) and the three other groups received cyclophosphamide and Sacha inchi oil of concentrations 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg respectively. The substances were administered three times during 24 hours. The genotoxicity in mice was evaluated determining micronucleus levels in blood and bone marrow.

Results: CP group showed higher micronucleus levels in blood and bone marrow compared with Sacha inchi oil 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg groups (ANOVA Test P < 0.001 Scheffe’s Post Hoc P < 0.001).

Conclusion: In our findings, Sacha inchi oil was not mutagenic under experimental conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nerium oleander Distillate Can Reduce Oxidative Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage in Rats Fed with High Cholesterol Diet

Esma Menevse, Burak Dik, Abdullah Sivrikaya, Ahmet Levent Bas, Mutahire Tok

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39483

Aim: To evaluate the effect of Nerium oleander distillate on the high cholesterol diet(HCD) induced oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage via assessing blood 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) levels.

Methodolody: Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups. The first group (control group) was fed a normal diet and administered 0.5 ml distilled water via gavage for 90 days. The second and third groups were fed with HCD. The second group was administered 0.5 ml distilled water and the third group was administered 0.5 ml Nerium oleander distillate(0.375 mg/rat) via gavage for 90 days, after being fed the HCD for two weeks. Blood samples were collected, and 8-OHdG and SOD levels were measured.

Results: 8-OHdG levels were statistically significantly different in all groups. Highest 8-OHdG levels were determined in the second group whereas Nerium oleander treatment reduced the level of 8-OHdG. In addition, decreased SOD levels were detected in the rats fed with HCD(Groups 2 and 3) when compared to the control group. 

Conclusion: It may be stated that HCD may cause oxidative damage in deoxyribonucleic acid and Nerium oleander distillate may reduce this damage. Hence, Nerium oleander distillate may show beneficial effects in the treatments of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and metabolic syndrome. In the future, it should investigate the effect of Nerium oleander distillate on different antioxidant pathways.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Peculiarities of Erythrocytes’ Rheological Characteristics in Persons of the Second Mature Age at the Start of Regular Exercises after Lasting Hypodynamia

N. V. Vorobyeva, E. V. Skripleva, A. V. Skriplev, T. V. Skoblikova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39112

Introduction: Rheological characteristics of erythrocytes mostly determine the processes of microcirculation and metabolism in tissues. Investigation of their peculiarities in untrained people who began regular adequate exercises, can help to understand rehabilitation mechanisms after hypodynamia.

Aim: To determine the changes of erythrocytes’ microrheological properties in those persons of the second mature age who had avoided exercises earlier and then began regular athletic training.

Materials and Methods of Research: The group of observation was composed of 45 healthy people of both sexes of the second mature age who had avoided physical loads earlier and began regular exercises in the athletic section thrice a week. The 1st control group was composed of 42 people of both sexes of the same age who had regularly trained in the athletics section thrice a week for not less than 10 years. The 2ndcontrol group was composed of 46 people who had daily walked not less than 6 km in the course of the last 10 years. There was applied biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation.

Results: The start of regular exercises in persons with hypodynamia was accompanied by quantity lowering of acylhydroperoxides in their plasma in 3 months of observation by 14.8%, and in 6 months – by 23.4% reaching the level of both control groups. It took place against the background of strengthening of their antioxidant plasma activity in 6 months by 10.2%. During 6 months of physical training the group of observation was noted to have imbalance decrease of arachidonic acid metabolites: the level of thromboxane B2 in their plasma lowered by 10.7% and the level of 6-keto-prostaglandin F increased by 8.7%. It was accompanied by increase of nitric oxide metabolites by 8.9% in their plasma. Erythrocytes of persons from the group of observation in the course of 6 months were noted to have lowering of cholesterol level by 9.1% and acylhydroperoxides by 19.9% at the rise of common phospholipids in them by 6.2%. In 6 months the group of observation was noted to have the increase of erythrocytes-discocytes by 8.2% at quantity lowering of erythrocytes’ reversibly and irreversibly modified forms by 18.5% and in 2.1 times, respectively. At the same time, to the end of observation they were found to have the lowering of erythrocytes’ involvement into aggregates by 17.3% and the quantity of these aggregates by 39.3% at the increase of free erythrocytes by 13.5%.

Conclusion: Persons of the second mature age who began regular exercises after lasting hypodynamia are characterized by gradual improvement of erythrocytes’ microrheological properties reaching the level of control groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Viability Kinetic Profile, Morphological Structure, and Physicochemical Characterization of Candida albicans Biofilm on Latex Silicone Surfaces

Derick Erl P. Sumalapao, Esperanza C. Cabrera, Mary Jane C. Flores, Divina M. Amalin, Nelson R. Villarante, Marohren T. Altura, Nina G. Gloriani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39525

Biofilm formed by Candida albicans on latex silicone surfaces was characterized by instrumental techniques such as fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The growth and viability of C. albicans on the biofilm formed were described using different kinetic rate equations. C. albicans biofilm has a complex and heterogenous structure with hyphal elements and yeast cells entrenched within a polysaccharide matrix. Spectroscopic studies revealed specific stretching frequencies of O-H, C-O, and C=O which can be attributed to the presence of some functionalities in the biofilm formed by C. albicans. Viability of C. albicans behaved in accordance with the first-order kinetic equation on the first 48 h, then shifted to a second-order kinetic equation until the 72 h, and had a doubling time of 70 h. Information on model biofilms with emphasis on growth rates and morphogenesis, structural organization, and physicochemical characteristics can possibly explain resistance to some antifungal treatments and subsequent synthesis of newer generation drugs for fungal biofilm-related infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-hemolytic, Anti-lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Properties and Acute Toxicity of Xanthium strumarium Leaves Extracts

Thoraya Guemmaz, Fatima Zerargui, Sabah Boumerfeg, Lekhmici Arrar, Sana Aouachria, Seddik Khennouf, Nour Eddine Charef, Abderrahman Baghiani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40024

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of different extracts prepared from the leaves of Xanthium strumarium. Polyphenols and flavonoids contents in all extracts were determined by spectrophotometric assays, antioxidant and antiradical capacities of the extracts were assayed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)  radical scavenging assay, reducing power, β-carotene and anti-hemolytic assay.  In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity of three concentrations of leaves crude extract was investigated.  Antioxidant activity of the crude extract was examined using anti-hemolytic assay and the determination of Glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and catalase activity. In vitro antioxidant assays showed that crude extract and its fractions have strong effects in scavenging DPPH and reducing power. These  activities decreased in the following order: ethyl acetate extract (EAE) > aqueous extract (AqE) > crude extract (CrE) >  chloroform extract  (ChE). The β-carotene bleaching assay showed that the CrE had the highest antioxidant activity followed by the EAE, AqE and the ChE. However, the anti-hemolytic test demonstrated that the ChE was the most effective in protecting red blood cells, followed by the EAE, AqE and the CrE. Three concentrations of leaves crude extract were tested for the in vivo antioxidant assays,  and anti-hemolytic Catalase activity and the content of both MDA and Glutathione (GSH) were estimated.  Among these tests, X. strumarium crude extract exhibited a potent inhibition of lipid peroxidation. 

It was concluded that X. strumarium extracts contain high phenolic content and have powerful antioxidant capacity in vitro and in vivo.  These extracts were found to be safe with no toxic effects. These findings support the traditional use of this plant as an anti-inflammatory remedy.