Open Access Short Research Article
Length-frequencies and length-weight relationships of the four economically important fish species Encrasicholina heteroloba (Rüppel 1837), E. punctifer Fowler 1938, Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus 1758) and Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1816) were analysed to assess the condition of the respective stocks. Length-frequency data were analysed to estimate the theoretical maximum size of fish in a stock (L∞) and the coefficient K, indicating how fast fish reach that size. A power model approach was used with length and weight data to estimate the condition factor a and allometry coefficient b. The two anchovy species (Encrasicholina) showed similar values with = 9.45 cm, K = 1.10 year-1, a = 0.00672 and b = 2.919 for E. heteroloba and L∞ = 10.78 cm, K = 1.00 year-1, a = 0.01031 and b = 2.871 for E. punctifer. For both species, the allometry coefficient was below 3, implying allometric growth. The estimated parameters for the skipjack tuna K. pelamis and the Indian mackerel R. kanagurta were L∞= 72.32 cm, K = 0.38, a = 0.0395 and b = 2.766 and L∞= 27.83 cm, K = 0.92, a = 0.00556 and b = 3.216, respectively. All data were collected in Pasir Kendang, Padang, West-Sumatra in 1993 and 1994.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is a major public health problem in tropical areas such as the Philippines. A significant portion of the population in the Philippines consists of people located in the provinces as well as hard to reach localities that often cater to fishing and rural communities.
Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections, helminth densities, and relevant risk factors associated with helminth infections among grade school children.
Materials and Methods: In July 2015, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths among Kindergarten to Grade 10 pupils in Jaime Hilario Integrated School-La Salle (JHIS-LS) in Bagac, Bataan, Philippines was determined using Kato-Katz technique. Moreover, socio-demographic profile including sex, age, and hygiene and sanitation practices of the pupils were obtained.
Results: Of the 110 pupils, a prevalence rate of 6.36% with at least one STH infection was identified. The predominant parasites were Trichuris trichiura (56%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22%) and Enterobius vermicularis (22%). T. trichiura was identified in single infection while A. lumbricoides and E. vermicularis were found in mixed infections. Of the socio-demographic characteristics of the pupils, the use of soap in washing hands is a protective factor against helminth infections (OR=0.15, 95% CI: 0.02-0.97).
Conclusion: Further studies using different STH diagnostic procedures must be done and other risk factors associated with STH must be identified.
Open Access Original Research Article
Citrus fruits are an excellent source vitamin C, of a nutrient that strengthens the immune system and keeps the skin smooth, elastic and has a great socio-economic importance at the national level. Seedlessness is a desirable characteristic in citrus fruit sold for fresh consumption.
This work is part of a genetic diversification program of citrus. The aim of this research is to study the variability of selection criteria related to the quality of the fruit. Ninety-six clones were obtained by bud irradiation from Sidi aissa clementine with two different ionizing radiation doses (30 and 50 Gy). The buds were grafted onto macrophylla and planted with a spacing of 3x5 m2. The evaluation focused on the organoleptic and pomological criteria. Statistical analysis showed that fruit quality was affected differently by gamma irradiation. Some clones presented no changes compared to the control ‘Sidi Aissa’ clementine, while other clones showed significant differences. They showed either higher or lower levels of the researched characteristics. From the 96 clones, 60 showed a juice content higher than the average of 52.12%, in the sugar levels, 29 clones showed a higher level than the control Sidi Aissa with 9.09 %, 70 clones resulted in a lower number of acidity with a percentage of 0.79%, in weight, 72 clones were heavier with an average of 85,38g and lastly 34 clones were too late with a mean of 10,14 for the maturity index. Two irradiated clones of clementine 50 M85 and 30 M68 were selected because of their highest fruit quality for all criteria and seedlessness compared to the control Sidi Aissa that has 7 seeds per fruit. Gamma-irradiated varieties were slightly or significantly preferable to that of unirradiated Sidi Aissa.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Salinity is one of the major factors affecting agriculture. To grow in saline environments, bacteria and plants have to adjust their turgor pressure by accumulating compatible solutes as glycine betaine and proline. Inoculation of plants of economic interest, mainly wheat, by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria such as Pseudomonas species is an effective biological approach for the recovery of soils affected by salt.
Methodology: The halotolerance of indigenous Pseudomonas strains was tested in the presence of high salt concentrations. Under these stress conditions, the effect of natural osmoprotectant molecules elaborated by the halophyte A. halimus was observed.
Results: In this study, 3 Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from wheat rhizosphere and one from the endophyte of Atriplex halimus. They were identified as P. putida AF2, P. aeruginosa RB5, P. fluorescensRB13 and P. aeruginosa EH4; they exhibited good PGPR activities. The growth of the strains was stimulated in the presence of 100 and 300 mM of NaCl. P. fluorescens CHA0 was inhibited at 500 mM; the remaining strains were affected by 800 mM. Exogenous supply of glycine betaine and proline alleviated the stress. The extract of the halophyte A. halimus restored the growth of 3 strains. NaCl/ 900 mM was strongly inhibitor of all bacteria. The restoration of the growth of P. aeruginosa RB5 and P. aeruginosa EH4 by glycine betaine or proline was significant. No osmoprotectant molecule could overcome stress imposed by 1000 mM.
Conclusion: On the basis of their halotolrance and their ability to use natural osmoprotectant to restore their growth, the PGP fluorescent pseudomonads strains tested could be applied as inoculants of wheat for sustainable agriculture in salty soils.
Open Access Review Article
Preservation of industrial’s lactic acid bacteria (probiotics) by freeze-drying. Lactic acid bacteria have important nutritional needs and do not have resistance against the environmental conditions surrounding their production (drying, storage, etc.) and their use in vivo (physico-chemical properties of the digestive tract). In this condition, industrials and microbiologists develop regularly research projects of new lactic bacteria able to support the whole of the processes of production, storage and formulation without losing their functional properties. Among various methods of drying (atomization, fluidization and freeze-drying), freeze-drying makes it possible to obtain a thorough dehydration compatible with very long storage times. This method involves changes in product temperature and cause damage to microorganisms because it requires freezing that is not without consequences for cells. On the other side, it causes cellular (peroxydation of the fatty-acids) and genetic (proteins’s modifications) deteriorations. Using cryoprotectants and antioxidants during freeze-drying storage increases appreciably the rate of viability of these cells.