Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity for the Properties Related to the Quality of Hexaploid Bread Wheat (SeriM82 / Babax) under Drought Stress

Seyed Mohammad Taghi Tabatabai, Mahmood Seleuki, Baratali Fakheri, Mohsen Ismail-Zadeh Moghadam, Nafisa Mehdinezhad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38989

In order to study the diversity of related characteristics of bakery quality in 167 bread wheat genotypes (SeriM82 / Babax), along with their parents, were evaluated based on two replications. The measured traits including protein content, zeolite sediment volume, bread volume, moisture content, grain hardness, water absorption, wet gluten, gluten index, gluten elasticity, Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume and quantitative trait of 1000 seed weight according to standards International. After analysis of variance, the data of the experiments and the comparison of the meanings were performed using multivariate methods, cluster analysis and factor analysis, genotyping grouping and the relationship between the variables (traits). The result of variance showed that genotype was significant for protein, bread volume, wet gluten, gluten index, sedimentation of sodium dodecyl sulfate and 1000 grain weight at 1% level. Factor analysis from 11 traits examined, 4 factors with 60% variance, the first factor with variance of 27.48% including traits of protein content, zeolite sediment volume, bread volume, moisture content and water absorption, the second factor with variance of 4.8% Includes wet gluten characteristics, gluten elasticity, SDS sedimentation volume, third factor with 10.16% variance, including seed hardness and gluten index, and fourth factor with variance of 9.85% of 1000 seed weight. The results of factor coefficient evaluation indicate the importance of protein content traits, zeolite sediment volume, bread volume, moisture content and water absorption in selection of suitable genotypes for drought conditions. Based on cluster analysis (intra-group variance algorithm), genotypes were divided into eight groups, the fifth group had high baking quality and could be used in breeding programs to improve the quality of baking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Peculiarities of Hemocoagulation in Newborn Calves after Cresacin and Hamavit Application

V. D. Fomina, Т. А. Belova, G. S. Mal, O. N. Makurina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39952

Newborn calves are still often registered to have dyspepsia or acute hypoxia. These disturbances are very often accompanied by the development of hemostasiopathy. There are no definite approaches to its correction yet.

Aim: To determine activity dynamics of coagulation hemostasis in newborn calves with dyspepsia or after acute hypoxia at birth against the background of cresacin and hamavit application.

Materials and Methods: We examined 33 newborn calves after acute hypoxia at birth (experimental group №1) and 38 calves with noninfectious dyspepsia (experimental group №2). In the course of 5 days all the experimental calves were given cresacin 4mg/kg a day in the morning for drinking and were injected hamavit intramuscularly 0.03 mg/kg once a day in the morning. We applied biochemical, hemostatic and statistical methods of investigation. The control group in our research was composed of 35 healthy newborn calves.

Results of Research: Both groups of experimental calves were noted to have similar level rise of plasma lipids’ peroxidation, strengthening of coagulation process, weakening of anticoagulation processes and fibrinolysis. Application of cresacin and hamavit combination to the examined animals provided similar positive dynamics of all the accountable indices in them. In the result of their application we noted some lowering of plasma acylhydroperoxides’ level (more than in 2.2 times) on behalf of the increase of its antioxidant activity (more than by 30.0%) till the level of the norm. The newborn calves with dyspepsia or after acute hypoxia turned out to be able to reach full activity normalization of all the initially activated coagulation factors against the background of the conducted correction. The time of registered coagulation tests in the observed newborn calves from both experimental groups reached the level of the control values against the background of the correction. In the result of the conducted correction the activity of antithrombin III and protein C in the observed calves from the experimental groups increased by more than 13.0% and by more than 15.0% what provided their normalization. It was accompanied by level rise of plasminogen what provided activity normalization of fibrinolysis system in all the experimental animals.

Conclusion: Newborn calves with dyspepsia or after acute hypoxia at birth are characterized by coagulation activity and weakening of plasma anticoagulant and fibrinolytic mechanisms. The application of cresacin and hamavit combination to both categories of newborn calves provides normalization of plasma coagulation activity and mechanisms of its limitation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Studies of Stem and Root Extracts of Crateva adansonii

C. O. Ajanaku, J. O. Echeme, R. C. Mordi, T. F. Owoeye, O. S. Taiwo, O. Ejilude, J. U. Ataboh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39314

Aim: This study was designed to explore the phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the stem and root extracts of Crateva adansonii.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Iyesi village, Ota, Ogun State, and analysis carried out at Department of Chemistry and Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State and for duration of three months (November 2016 to February 2017).

Methodology: Standard universal procedures were employed for both phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis.

Results: The result obtained from the stem and root extracts of Crateva adansonii indicated the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and cardiac glycosides. Root extract was found to be richer in source of phytochemicals when compared to the stem extract. However, the highest antibacterial activity was observed against selected bacteria by both stem and root extracts. The potency of the root extract was observed to be higher than the stem extract against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Serratia spp.

Conclusion: The preliminary studies on the stem and the root of Crateva adansonii extracts revealed their antimicrobial potential which could be further investigated for global utilization in pharmaceutical treatment, natural therapies, food preservation and cosmetic applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cryptosporidium spp.: Serum Antibodies and Coproantigens in Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Grenada, West Indies

Ravindra Nath Sharma, Keshaw Prasad Tiwari, Camille Coomansingh Springer, Katelyn Thille, Melissa Portwood, Arnora Griffith, Eloisia Seligson

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39602

The aim of the study was to determine the serum antibodies and coproantigens for Cryptosporidium spp. in brown rats from Grenada. Intestinal contents from 99 and serum from 169 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) during May to July 2017 were examined for coproantigens and antibodies for Cryptosporidium spp. respectively. Giardia/Cryptosporidium Quick Chek (Tech Lab Inc, USA) was used to detect Cryptosporidium coproantigens in intestinal contents. Prevalence of antigens was 2.02%, signifying active infection.  Serum anti-Cryptosporidium antibodies against Cryptosporidium were tested using commercial “qualitative rat Cryptosporidium antibody (Anti-CRY) ELISA kit (My BioSource, Santiago, CA, USA). Serum antibodies were present in 29.5% of the rats indicating a heavy exposure of Cryptosporidium in brown rats from Grenada. The prevalence rate of antibodies in younger rats (up to100g weight) 42.1%, was statistically significant compared to adults (> 100 g) 28.0%. Infected rats in nearby human dwellings may prove a potential Cryptosporidium source of infection to man and animals. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in brown rats in Grenada, West Indies.

Open Access Review Article

Formulation of Insecticidal Nematode

Gitanjali Devi, Jisna George

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39779

Insecticidal nematodes or entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are lethal obligate parasites of insect pests. These nematodes carry specific pathogenic bacteria which are released into the insect hemocoel after penetration of the insect host. The economic importance of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) is increasing as the nematodes are amenable for mass production, formulation, handling and application on a large scale and is currently marketed worldwide for use. The objective of the review is to discuss the principles of formulation and quality control, latest development and future perspectives of the EPNs formulation for the successful use of EPNs as bio insecticides.