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Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Kinetic Profile of Candida albicans Under Varying Environmental Conditions

Derick Erl P. Sumalapao

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40071

Several environmental conditions were identified to influence the growth and morphogenesis of Candida albicans. The present study quantitatively examined the growth rate and described the kinetic profile of C. albicans under different pH, temperature, and culture medium. When C. albicans was monitored over the 12-h period under different culture media, temperature values, and pH levels, the growth kinetic profile of the organism behaved in accordance with the first-order rate equation. The organism exhibited a relatively faster growth rate when incubated at 37ºC in modified Sabouraud glucose broth medium with pH 7.4. Moreover, the growth profile exhibited a linear pattern between 1.5 h and 6 h after inoculation of C. albicans culture which coincides with the mycelium production, and subsequently shifted to an exponential increase beyond 6 h. Given the environmental conditions selectively supporting the growth and morphogenesis of C. albicans, quantitative descriptions of the rate kinetic profile of C. albicans population offer an objective approach in comparing environmental conditions with varying physicochemical characteristics and biochemical compositions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Characterization and Bioactivity of an Improved Chitosan Scaffold Cross-Linked With Polyvinyl Alcohol for Corneal Tissue Engineering Applications

Mohamed Ali Seyed, Kavitha Vijayaraghavan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39648

Background: Corneal blindness resulting from various medical condition affects millions worldwide. The rapid developing field of tissue engineering offers the potential to develop a tissue-engineered cornea that adheres very closely to the native cornea for transplantation. The design of a scaffold with mechanical properties and transparency similar to that of natural cornea is vital for the regeneration of corneal tissues. Hence, there is a need to investigate this relatively inexpensive but an improved scaffold to assist in human corneal stem cells delivery.

Aim and Study Design: The present study aimed at to prepare and investigate the properties of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan blended scaffold by further cross-linking with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl amino propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC), 2 N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as potential in vitro carrier for human limbal epithelial cells delivery.

Results: After the viscosity measurement, the PVA/Chitosan scaffold was observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The water absorbency of PVA/Chitosan was increased 361% by swelling. Compression testing demonstrated that by increasing the amount of chitosan, the strength of the scaffold could be increased to 16 × 10−1 Mega Pascal Pressure Unit (MPa). Our degradation results revealed by mass loss shows that scaffold degraded gradually implies slow degradation but shown enhanced the biomechanical properties. In vitro 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed good cell proliferation and growth in the scaffold. Besides the above, the present study aimed at exploring the effects if any observed with PVA/chitosan and other cross linkers on cell morphology and phenotype using H&E staining. Our MTT assay results and the cells observed on these membranes confirmed that the safer and improved method of preparation of membrane could increase the cells adhesion and growth on the substrata.

Conclusion: Hence, we strongly believe the use of this improved PVA/chitosan polymer scaffold has potential to cut down the disadvantages of human amniotic membrane (HAM) for corneal epithelium in ocular surface surgery in future after successful experimentation with clinical trials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plantlet Regeneration from Unfertilized Ovule of Mandarin (Citrus reticulata)

Label Kawtar, Handaji Najat, Brhadda Najiba, Arsalane Najat, Gmira Najib, Aderdour Tarik, Karim Mahmoudi, Benyahia Hamid

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39348

The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide, many genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches of cultivar improvement. in this objective We aime at studying the effects of various culture media on the induction and the development of citrus somatic embryos.Callus cultures were initiated from the infertlized ovules of six varieties of mandarin (Anana, Lee, Murcott, Ortanique, Temple, and Wilking) within 3 media: MT (Murashig and Tuker, 1969) without hormones, MT + 1 mg/l BAP, MT + 1 mg/l Kinetin, the experiments show a highly significant effect (P < 0.001) of the culture media and genotype. No reactivity was observed on the MT environment in the absence of growth regulator, while the culture media MT in addition to 1 mg/l BAP gave the best results of induction of embryogenic callus induction. The induction of somatic embryogenesis was obtained on MT media without hormones. For the plantlets regeneration the favorable media was MT without hormones or added to ANA and active coal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of SLC30A4 and SLC39A14 Zinc Transporter Gene’s Mutations in the Pathogenesis of Neural Tube Defects in Setif, Algeria

Romyla Bourouba, Didem Torun, Nejat Akar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40106

Aims: This study was designed to investigate a common polymorphism in the exon 5 of the solute carrier SLC30A4 (ZNT4) gene 915 T-C in a group of mothers with neural tube defects (NTDs) babies compared to healthy controls in Setif region of Algeria, as well as the detection of a pathogenic mutation of the SLC39A14 (ZIP 14) gene in the NTD group.

Methodology: The case-control study, included 94 healthy mothers and 88 mothers with previous NTDs child; aged between 24 and 48 years. Peripheric blood DNA extraction was done by phenol-chloroform method. T915C polymorphism in ZnT4 gene was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, sequencing of promoter 1: 333 base pairs of ZIP 14 gene was investigated. Odds ratio and Confidence Interval were calculated.

Results: Our results revealed that homozygous mutant (CC) carriers in the control group were 6%, and in the NTDs mothers it was 7%, with a risk of 0.97 (CI 95%: (0.29- 3.26). The difference between the allelic frequency of the allele C among NTD s mothers compared to control mothers was not significant (Odds ratio 0.9, CI: 0.57 - 1.43). Sequencing of ZIP 14 gene didn’t show any mutation and alteration in mothers with a previous NTD child.

Conclusion: The majority of pregnancies carrying neural tube abnormalities occur in Algerian mothers without previous NTDs cases. Furthermore, despite the lack of a relationship between zinc transporter genes and NTDs in our study, further investigations focusing on the molecular mechanisms and relevance of nutritional zinc status in relation with these malformations should be considered, attempting to find some highlights about pathogenesis of these defects in our country.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of TNF-Alpha, Beta, XRCC1 and p53 Gene Predisposition in Cancers

Swapna Kollabathina, G. Sudhakar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39614

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled cellular growth and differentiation. The major cause of Cancer consists of different types of genetic alterations that include gene substitutions, point mutations and gene amplification leading to damage in molecular pathways responsible for cell growth, survival, and metastasis. These changes develop in the majority of cases with a specific type of tumor.  Genes can be used as biomarkers for identification and development of targeted treatments and also for predicting various responses to therapies. The aim of the present review is to reveal the role of tumorigenesis in TNF alpha, beta, xrcc1 and p53 genes in cancer susceptibility to gene predisposition.