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Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Hepatoprotective Activity of Algerian Santolina chamaecyparissus L. Extracts

Dalila Messaoudi, Hamama Bouriche, Ibrahim Demirtas, Abderrahmane Senator

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40346

Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Santolina chamaecyparissusaqueous and ethanol extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Methodology: Phytochemical analysis of Santolina chamaecyparissus aqueous and ethanol extracts was conducted, and then the hepatoprotective activity of these extracts was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats by assessing serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase alkaline phosphatasen, lactate dehydrogenase activities and assessing catalase, superoxide dismutase and malonaldialdehyde in liver. Total bilirubin, cholesterol and triglycerides were also determined. Moreover, hepatic tissue damage was verified.

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in aqueous and ethanol extracts of Santolina chamaecyparissus leaves. Both extracts contain chlorogenic acid as significant constituent (1958.21, 2726.57 mg/kg of extract, respectively), while apigenin-7-glycoside was detected as the significant flavonoid (42.44, 66.63 mg/kg of extract, respectively). The intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4to rats induced remarkable hepatotoxicity by increasing hepatic damage. However, oral administration of both extracts at 30, 150 and 300 mg/kg during 7 days significantly prevented liver injury by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglyceride and malondialdehyde were also decreased, while superoxide dismutase activity was restored. On the other hand, aqueous and ethanol extracts protected liver tissue against steatosis and hepatocytic necrosis. The hepatoprotective effect of both extracts was similar to that of 100 mg/kg of silymarin, used as a reference.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that Santolina chamaecyparissus aqueous and ethanol extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and exhibit hepatoprotective activity, so they can constitute a promising natural source to develop novel therapeutic drugs for treating liver disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters to Evaluate the Mycelia Growth of Pleurotus pulmonarius

Nabeela Ilyas, Farhat A. Avin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40020

Pleurotus pulmonarius commonly known as the grey oyster mushroom is the most widely cultivated species for its nutritional, medicinal and economical values. Two strains (China & Thailand) of P. pulmonarius were grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA) and sawdust substrate in different salinity conditions with different water collected from four resources to analyse the vegetative growth of mycelium. The water samples were labelled as W1-lab water (control), W2- Nas-Agro farm water, W3- Ganofarm water and W4- 7-star agricultural farm water. The present research evidently indicated that the two strains of P. pulmonarius showed relative similarities regarding their development and physiochemical characteristics. The mycelia of P. pulmonarius showed considerable growth for 0% and 1% NaCl in both PDA and substrate medium. The slight growth for 5% NaCl was observed only in sawdust substrate for W2 (water collected from Nas-Agro Farm) while remaining 10% NaCl plates (PDA) and test tubes (sawdust substrate) remained uncolonised. Among the NaCl concentrations tested, the best mycelia yield was recorded in the medium with low concentrations of NaCl as an essential element for the mycelial growth. Variation of mycelial growth was also observed with different water samples, growth medium and strains of the mushroom. The best results were observed in W2 with PDA media showing high vegetative growth. Moreover, the China strain showed faster and uniform results. This suggests that salinity, growth medium and water are effective for the growth of mycelium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variations in Plasma IL-2 and IL-10 in Relationship with Plasmodium Parasite Density

Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Feyikemi Ruth Oladimeji, Temitayo Afolabi, Shedrack Gbenga Olayinka

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38871

Study Background: Plasma IL-2 and IL-10 are cytokines for immuno regulation and immuno modulation in infectious diseases. IL10 inhibit synthesis of IFN gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF. Plasmodium infection is associated with reproduction of cytokines for innate and acquired immunity.
Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine variations in plasma IL-2 and IL-10 in relationship with plasmodium parasite density.

Materials and Methods: Out of one hundred and sixteen (116) initially recruited only fifty Plasmodium infected female and male (female =25; male =25) aged 4-70 years free of M. tuberculosis and seronegative to HBsAg, HCV and HIV were recruited for the work.. Fifty age matched Plasmodium non-infected subjects were studied as control (female =25; male =25). Only subjects who were free of M. tuberculosis and seronegative to HIV, HCV, HBsAg test and AFB negative were recruited for the work. Plasma IL-2, IL-10, HIV, HBsAg and HCV were determined in the patients and the control subject immunochemically by ELISA while Identification of Plasmodium spp was determined in the blood of the patients and the control subject using WHO standard technique for the laboratory diagnosis of plasmodium infection in malaria endemic area.

Results: A frequency of : 12.0%(14) Anti-HCV seropositive, 6.9%(8) Anti-HIV seropositive, 19.8%(23) HBsAg seropositive, 13.8% (16) AFB positive patients  and 4.3%(5)  indeterminate results was obtained  from  the 116 Plasmodium infected patients initially recruited. There was a significantly Higher plasma value of IL-10 in plasmodium infected patients with parasite density of 500-999 and ≥1000 than the control subjects with p<0.05. There was also a significantly lower mean plasma value of IL-10 in plasmodium infected patients with parasite density of 50-499 than those patients with parasite density 500-999 and ≥1000 with p<0.05.

Conclusion: Plasmodium parasitemia and increase in parasite density has been found to significantly increase the plasma value of IL-10 with no significant change in the plasma value of IL-2. There was also an evidence of  HIV, HCV, HBV and M. tuberculosis co-infection  with Plasmodium spp .

Open Access Review Article

Tea Seed: A Review

P. K. Patel, B. Das, R. Sarma, B. Gogoi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40418

Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz) is one of the most economically essential beverage crops in all over the world and is considered to be the national drink. Tea seeds are borne in capsules, each containing one to three seeds. Seed is a means for reproduction and always possess variation within groups of seedlings. In nature, variability has an essential role in the production of the crop with quality and quantity. Tea seeds are recalcitrant and shown to lose viability very fast which makes their storage and transportation. In North East India, tea flowers from October to mid-February. Seed development right from flower bud initiation to maturity required 18 months. During seed maturation, the storage of carbohydrates in cotyledons continuously increases, and finally around 30% starch accumulates in tea seed cotyledons. Moreover, flower buds are a strong sink and approximately 46 percent of total photo-assimilates absorbed by developing flower bud. Tea seeds are planted in rows at a depth of about 1.5 cm. The macropile is usually pointed downward or parallel to the ground surface. Product diversification and value addition is currently an area of great interest. The oil extracted from tea seed has almost similar properties of olive and groundnut oils. High-quality detergent, soap, cream and hair oils can be made from tea seed oil.

Open Access Review Article

What We Have Lost: Domestic Dogs of the Ancient South Pacific

Carys Louisa Williams, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Giulio Curone, Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40377

In the thousands of years that followed dog domestication, wherever humans went, dogs surely followed. However, the tale of the dog in the ancient South Pacific is often an overlooked one. A small, bandy-legged dog, seemingly not much use for anything but food, this canine could easily be overshadowed in history by more accomplished breeds; the sled dogs of Siberia, the sight hounds of the Middle East, the herders and guarders of Europe, or the practical retrievers of North America. In actuality, tracing the journey of this domesticate could help us to work towards an answer in the mystery of the origin of the first South Pacific colonists. Through discussing the journey and presence of the domestic dog following one of the last great feats of human migration, valuable insight can be gained surrounding one of the longest-standing human-animal relationships. Over time, the closeness of man and dog in the South Pacific persisted, entrenched in folklore and material culture, with this landrace of dog only facing an untimely demise when it was usurped and genetically diluted by European breeds.