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Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Enrofloxacin on the Joint Fluid/Blood Oxidative Status and Organ Damage Markers

Devran Coskun, Kurtulus Parlak, Burak Dik, Hatice Eser Faki, Emre Bahcivan, Enver Yazar, Ayse Er

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40537

Aim: It has been hypothesized that chondrotoxicity, the main side effect of enrofloxacin use, may be derived from oxidative stress, and this side effect can be confirmed by measuring malondialdehyde and endogen antioxidants following drug application. The primary aim of this research is to determine the effect of enrofloxacin on the joint fluid and blood oxidative status parameters, and it is also to determine the effect on the organ damage parameters.

Materials and Methods: In the study, 10 rams received enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg/day, SC) for 14 days. Blood and joint fluids were taken on day 0 (Control) before drug application and 1.5 hours after the last drug application. Plasma and joint fluid malondialdehyde, total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels were determined by an ELISA reader. Cardiac (CK-MB mass, troponin I), liver (AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, total protein, albumin) and kidney (Creatinine, BUN) damage markers and hemogram (WBC, RBC, platelet, hematocrit, haemoglobin) values were measured.

Results: Enrofloxacin decreased the joint fluid catalase level (P<0.05), while there was no effect observed in the other oxidative status parameters of joint fluid or blood samples. Statistically significant changes (P<0.05) were found in some hemogram and biochemical parameters within the reference range. However, enrofloxacin increased (P<0.05) the levels of cardiac damage markers (CK-MB mass, troponin I).

Conclusion: It may be stated that enrofloxacin does not cause oxidative stress in the joint fluid and blood in rams, and it is generally accepted to be safe when the effect on the organ/system is considered, but the long-term use and high doses require caution in terms of possible heart related damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Immuno-modulatory Effects of Capparis spinosa Flower Bud Extract

Nassima Kernouf, Hamama Bouriche, Seoussen Kada, Dalila Messaoudi, Areej M. Assaf, Abderrahmane Senator

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40189

Aims: Capparis spinosa L. is a plant widely used in traditional medicine for its different purpose including the anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of this plant and to define its possible mechanism of action by verifying its effect on the production of some inflammatory mediators.

Methodology: The anti-inflammatory activity of Capparis spinosa bud methanolic extract was evaluated in vivo, using paw edema and air pouch inflammation models. In vitro, the ability of the extract to modulate the production of some pro and anti-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10 released from peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by concanavalin A was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of the extract on LTB4 and superoxide anion released from neutrophils was tested.

Results: Results showed that the oral administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of Capparis spinosa methanolic extract reduced significantly carrageenan-induced paw edema. Above 2 h, both doses of the extract exerted a significant (P < 0.001) anti-edematous effect, with 52%-69%. In addition, this extract inhibited the neutrophil migration into the air pouch. The inhibition exerted by 1 mg/pouch of the extract (48.92%) was better than that exerted by indomethacin, used as reference. On the other hand, the extract inhibited significantly the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, LTB4 and superoxide anion generation. At 100 µg/mL, the inhibition values were 21.28%, 38.04%, 20.84% and 71.16%, respectively. In contrast, the extract did not show any significant effect on the release of IL-8 and IL-10.

Conclusion: Capparis spinosa bud extract inhibited the inflammatory process by modulating the pro-inflammatory mediator release. Thus this extract can offer a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hormonal Assay and Reproductive Performance of Rabbits Fed Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Leaves as Feed Supplement

A. J. Henry, G. U. Udie, P. O. Ozung, M. I. Anya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/36914

Aims: To evaluate the effect of Carica papaya leaves on some reproductive hormones of male and female rabbits, and monitor their reproductive performance.

Study Design: The experimental design used for the study was Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Calabar and Haematology/Pathology and Microbiology Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Calabar, Cross River State. Feeding trial lasted for ten weeks.

Methodology: Twenty-seven sexually matured crossbred (New Zealand White x Chinchilla) rabbits (eighteen does and nine bucks). Rabbits were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups made up of three replicates comprising of 1 buck: 2 does (mating ratio/replicate). Dietary treatments: control (T1) - fed concentrate and potato (Ipomea batatas) leaves; (T2) - fed concentrate and fresh pawpaw leaves; (T3) - fed concentrate and wilted pawpaw leaves. Blood samples were collected from six animals (3 does and 3 bucks) per treatment group, from the marginal ear vein. This was done a day before mating and two weeks post-mating (before feeding in the morning). Test for hormonal parameters in blood serum (testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Progesterone and Estradiol) were carried out with the aid of tube-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method.

Results: Reproductive parameters evaluated were observed not to be affected by dietary treatments. Follicle stimulating hormone levels increased between pre-mating and post-mating as a result of ovarian factors. Luteinizing hormone was relatively lower during pregnancy. Progesterone levels also increased within the period before mating to post mating for rabbits fed fresh pawpaw leaves (8.25 to 9.14 ngmL-1) and wilted pawpaw leaves (7.93 to 8.80 ngmL-1).

Conclusion: Pawpaw leaves can be served to rabbits either in its fresh or wilted state without affecting reproductive parameters assessed in this study. Results of hormonal assay did not reveal any adverse effects due to dietary treatment on the rabbits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Algerian Capparis spinosa. L

Ridha Aichour, Nadia Benzidane, Lekhmici Arrar, Noureddine Charef, Abderrahmane Baghiani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40410

The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of methanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Capparis spinosa. For hepatoprotective activity, liver injury was induced in male Wistar mice by administration of CCl4   (1 ml / kg of CCl4   30% in olive oil,), while C. spinosa leaf extract (CSLE) and fruit extract (CSFE) were administered orally to the experimental animals. Haematoxylin and Eosin based histology was performed to evaluate the histological changes in the liver. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay and membrane stabilization inhibitory activity at different concentrations. The methanol extracts showing effective in vitro anti-inflammatory activity were also tested for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice model. At a dose of 400 mg / kg, both extracts showed significant reduction of edema in the early and late phases of acute inflammation with a maximal effect at 6 hours after induction of the inflammation. Also and at the concentration of 400 µg / ml, the CSFE and CSLE exhibited significant protection of erythrocyte membrane against the lysis induced by heat (35.4% and 28.4%, respectively) and induced hypotonicity (58.9% and 72.8%, respectively). They also showed a significant protective effect, with a maximum percent of inhibition of the denaturation of albumin of 61.78% and 61.12%, respectively. Moreover, both extracts showed significant hepatoprotective activity that was evident by enzymatic examination and histopathological study. These findings proved that CSFE and CSLE have an anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, although slightly better for the leaf extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Industrial Wastewaters on Fresh Water Fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1785): A Tool for Ecological Risks Monitoring

Rajeev Pandey, Manikant Tripathi, Jaswant Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40018

Background: In the era of industries, the problem of pollution of aquatic resources has become aggravated due to continuous wastewater disposal. The Aquatic ecosystem health can be considered as an indicator of the environmental state. Furthermore, fishes are an ideal indicators for contaminated environment.

Aims: To assess the sensitivity of common carp fishes against industrial wastewaters exposure on the basis of lethal effects and behavioral changes as a tool for ecotoxicology for knowing the possible effects upon environment due to selected industries wastewater.

Methodology: In this study, the effects of industrial wastewaters for different ecotoxicological parameters (mortality and behaviour changes) on common carp were studied under static conditions during different time interval (24, 42, 72 and 96 h) followed by sampled industrial wastewater quality analysis for physicochemical parameters.

Results: Increased space between the gills and operculum, excessive excretion, as well as increased fish surface activity was found in the wastewater exposed fish compared to control.

Conclusion: The overall findings from the present study indicate that the sampled industrial wastewaters are safe for crop irrigation but may have some adverse impact on the biota due to the observed behavioral and histological changes in wastewater exposed fishes.