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Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic and Molecular Screening of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Genotypes against Okra Leaf Curl Disease

Elvis Asare-Bediako

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40659

Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is a major constraint on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) production in West AfricaThe most effective way of managing this disease is through breeding and planting of resistant varieties. In order to identify sources of resistance and or tolerance, 21 okra genotypes were screened against OLCD in field trials which were conducted from May to October, 2015 (rainy season) and November 2015 to March 2016 (dry season). Field resistance was assessed at 2, 6 and 10 weeks after sowing (WAS) based on disease symptoms, and then confirmed by PCR amplification of viral coat protein gene. Populations of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), the vector of begomoviruses associated with OLCD, as well as fruit yields were also assessed. Both PCR and field trials showed that all the okra genotypes were susceptible to the viral infection. The genotypes varied significantly (P<0.05) among them in terms of severity of OLCD, whitefly infestation, mean fruit yield (t ha-1), and the average fruit weight per plant. Higher cumulative average population of whitefly and mean fruit yield (t ha-1) were recorded in the dry season than in the rainy season. Genotypes GH5332 and GH6105 consistently showed mild symptoms of OLCD and also had very high fruit yields of 11.88 t ha-1 and  9.34 t ha-1 respectively in the rainy season, and 6.108 t ha-1and 4.05 t ha-1 respectively in the dry season, far above the overall mean yields for all the okra genotypes. Both genotypes GH5332 and GH6105 should be evaluated multi-locationally at farmers’ fields prior to their release as varieties or they should be incorporated into breeding lines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Biochar Amended Saline Soil on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Two Soybean Cultivars in Saudi Arabia

A. A. Kahil, A. A. Issa, Y. M. Al-Sodany, E. F. Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41126

Application of biochar to soil additionally restores soil Carbon and nutrients lost from bioenergy cropping systems as a result of biomass harvesting. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of biochar amended saline soil on plant growth, leaf chlorophyll, soil mineral contents and some physiological parameters of two Soybean cultivars in Saudi Arabia. The obtained results showed that plant height, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll a and b content of both varieties (Giza-111 and Clark) were inhibited in saline soil while enhanced in biochar one which derived from Pomegranate trees or biochar two which obtained from acacia trees. The highest value of carbohydrate and protein contents observed in Giza-111 with the compare to Clark cultivars under salinity conditions. It was concluded that soybean is a sensitive plant to salinity stress, but the extent of this sensitivity varies among cultivars. As a result, Giza-111 cultivar showed more capability to survive under salinity condition compared with another variety regarding of almost all plant parameter examined. Considering, biochar one was found more appropriate under salinity condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bio and Organic Fertilizers on Oil Production and Chemical Composition of Lemongrass Plant

Abd El Ghafor A. El-Sayed, Ahmed S. El-Leithy, Hend M. Swaefy, Zakia F. M. Senossi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40919

This study was carried out at the Department of Ornamental Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University during the two successive seasons of 2015 and 2016. The experiment was designed using a complete randomized blocks design. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NPK (recommended dose), biofertilizers (Nitrobien and Phosphorien) at 1,2 and 4 g/plant, compost and poultry manure at the rates of 5, 10 and 15 ton/ feddan (feddan=4200 m2) on essential oil production and biochemical compositions of Cymbopogon citratus plants.  The results showed that the average percentage of essential oil ranged between 0.140-0.300% at the first cut and 0.133-0.283% at the second cut of the two seasons, respectively. First cut (in August) resulted in more essential oil production than second cut (in October). Poultry manure produced the maximum essential oil yield/plant compared to control and the other fertilizer treatments. The main components in essential oil of lemongrass were β. myrcene, linalool, neral (citral b), geranial (citral a) and geranyl acetate identified by GC. Arranged in descending order, the major constituents were citral a and citral b which reached to 69.72- 81.39% in the oil. Compost at the rate of 10 ton/ feddan was the most effective application in citral content which reached to 81.39%. The organic applications positively affected pigments content of lemongrass plant. The highest herb content of phosphorus and potassium resulted from the plants treated by compost at the rate of 10 ton/ feddan and nitrobien at the rate of 2 g/plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decolorization of Cibacron Blue 3G-A Dye by Agaricus bisporus CU13 Laccase - Mediator System: A Statistical Study for Optimization via Response Surface Methodology

Abdelmageed M. Othman, Ali M. Elshafei, Maysa A. Elsayed, Mohamed M. Hassan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40772

Aim: the present study aims to optimize Cibacron Blue 3G-A decolorization as a model dye through laccase ‎enzymatic biocatalysis presenting the role of HBT as a redox mediator via ‎RSM approach.‎

Study Design: RSM using Central Composite Design (CCD) was used in order to determine the most effective variables levels in Cibacron Blue 3G-A decolorization and to investigate their interactions.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbial Chemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Cairo, Egypt, between August 2017 and January 2018.

Methodology: The evaluation of Cibacron Blue 3G-A decolorization by A. bisporus CU13 crude laccase was conducted through different trials using a 1.5 mL reaction mixture containing different concentration of crude laccase, Cibacron Blue 3G-A, and HBT in 0.1 M sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.5) at room temperature for different incubation periods.

Results: Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) as a mediator enhanced Cibacron Blue 3G-A decolorization levels significantly, where decolorization percentage caused by laccase enzyme alone were ‎11.92 and ‎23.78%, ‎whereas that caused by laccase HBT mediator system under the same conditions were 43.43 and ‎76.34% after 1 and 22 h of incubation, respectively. HBT concentration, dye concentration, enzyme activity, and incubation time were chosen as study variables to optimize Cibacron Blue 3G-A dye decolorization through RSM approach via central composite design (CCD). The optimum conditions for Cibacron Blue 3G-A decolorization were found to be under using 0.50 U/mL of Agaricus bisporus CU13 laccase, 92.19 ppm of Cibacron Blue 3G-A, and 1 mM of HBT in order to get decolorization percentage of 29.29% in 35 min.

Conclusion: Agaricus bisporus CU13 crude laccase was used as a biocatalyst to decolorize Cibacron Blue 3G-A in presence of HBT as a mediator through utilizing the response surface methodology approach. HBT concentration, dye concentration, enzyme activity, ‎and incubation time affects the decolorization levels considerably.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Genetic Variability among Mutant Accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana L.

Khalid H. Alamer

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40935

Genetic diversity among 12 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana possessing Pi transporter genes (Pht), compared to the related wild type, have been investigated using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and two biochemical marker systems; sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isozymes. ISSR fingerprints clearly distinguished the 13 accessions and differentiate between the wild type and its mutant accessions. The six primers revealed a total of 79 fragments, ranging from 5 to 23 bands per primer (average 13.16 bands per primer). The polymorphism ranged between 44% for (GA)8C primer and 100% for the other primers. The cluster of ISSR patterns reflected high polymorphism (90.7%). AG repeat was the most common among the targeted units because it represented by the highest number of bands, whereas, AC and GA repeats gave the lowest number. No distinct polymorphism was observed in isozyme and SDS-PAGE patterns where ACP produced only one monomorphic band. Biochemical results could not characterize any variable behavior for mutant accessions compared to wild type even in the presence of three different members of Pht1 genes. In conclusion, ISSR markers are recommended for exploring genetic variability among different Arabidopsis mutants.