Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Crude Oil on Reproductive Indices of Residents of Oil Producing Area; a Case Study of Olomoro

A. O. Naiho, K. K. Anachuna, O. Omeru, B. C. Nwogueze, C. Ejime, M. O. Odigie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39879

Several toxic effects of crude oil and some of its products on reproduction have been reported. High rate of child malnutrition and mortality, including increased birth defects and rashes have also been reported in areas impacted by oil development. This study therefore considers the impact of crude oil on reproduction as information in this area is still scanty. With informed consent, blood samples were collected (through the median cubital vein) from a total of one hundred and eighty apparently healthy human subjects (60 males and 30 females) from two locations; Olomoro (an oil producing community) and Owa (a non-oil producing community). Next, socio-economic and educational status of participants where ascertained. Using the Z statistics, student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), Statistical measures for such parameters as RBC, WBC, PCV, Total serum protein (TSP), serum Albumin (SA), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), FSH, Estrogen and Testosterone were conducted. A Significant reduction was observed in Haemoglobin concentration, TSP and SA of subjects in oil impacted community. Also, Significant reduction in number of surviving children, save deliveries and ante natal attendance was seen, along with a significant increase in the number of assisted delivery, still births, complications and gestation periods in oil impacted community, suggesting a poorer maternal and child health indication in crude oil impacted community. Study also observed a significant reduction in WBC, RBC and PCV of inhabitants of the crude oil impacted community. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Carbon Assimilation and Biochemical Changes of Polygonum minus Huds as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Nurul Najaa Muah, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41106

Aims: To study the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates on growth, carbon assimilation and biochemical changes of Polygonum minus.

Study Design: Polygonum minus were treated with different nitrogen fertilizer (0 kg N ha-1, 50 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1 and 150 kg N ha-1) using Urea (46%N) as a source of nitrogen. This experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at Taman Pertanian Universiti (TPU), Universiti Putra Malaysia between April 2017 to July 2017.

Methodology: The growth parameters measured includes the leaf number, plant height, diameter of the stem, and the leaf area. The carbon assimilation parameters were measured using LICOR 6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents from the leaves extracts of Polygonum minus were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagents.

Results: The best rates of nitrogen in enhancing the best growth and quality of Polygonum minus was observed at 150 kg N ha-1 in most parameters of growth and carbon assimilation. At the final harvest, the parameters such as number of leaves, plant height, stem diameters, total chlorophyll contents, leaves area, total dry weight, net assimilation rate (NAR), water use efficiency (WUE), net photosynthesis rate (A) stomatal conductance (gs), and maximal efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm) were highest at 150 kg N ha-1treatments. In the terms of biochemical changes, the parameter such as total phenolics contents and total flavonoids gain the highest production of total phenolics and flavonoids at 50 kg N ha-1.

Conclusion: This study indicated growth and carbon assimilation parameters were upregulated under higher nitrogen fertilization and production of secondary metabolites was decreased with high rates of nitrogen. The recommended nitrogen fertilization for P. minus was at 50 kg N Ha-1, where it obtained the highest harvest index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen Rates on Growth and Quality of Water Spinach (Ipomea aquatica)

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Nurhafizah Yasmin Abdul Rahman, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40352

Aims: The study was conducted to investigate the impact of nitrogen fertilization on growth, leaf gas exchange and bio-metabolite accumulation in Ipomea aquatica.

Treatment and Experimental Design: Ipomea aquatica plants were exposed to four different rates of nitrogen (0, 30, 60 and 90 N kg/ha) using Urea (46% N) as a nitrogen source. The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomize Design (CRD). 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia between September to November 2016.

Methodology: Four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 30, 60 and 90 N Kg/ha) using Urea as a nitrogen source. The growth data collections were conducted once a week after the application of the treatments for the plant growth parameters. The total chlorophyll content in the leaves was measured using a Soil Plant Analytical Device (SPAD-502) chlorophyll meter. The leaf gas exchange was determined using a LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis system. Total phenolics and flavonoid were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

Results: It was found that the highest measurements of growth parameters namely plant height, leaf numbers, branches numbers, total biomass and chlorophyll content were observed at 90 kg N/ha and the lowest at 0 kg N/ha. As for the leaf gas exchange, the positive effect of nitrogen fertilization on kangkung was shown by the increased in photosynthesis rate (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) where the highest measurement recorded at 90 kg N/ha, and the lowest at 0 kg N/ha. However, the water use efficiency (WUE) decreased as the nitrogen rates increased. At lower rates of nitrogen fertilization (30 kg N/ha) produced the highest production of secondary metabolites, where the total phenolics and flavonoids production were enhanced compared to other nitrogen treatments. 

Conclusion: In conclusion, as the nitrogen rates increased, the growth and leaf gas exchange properties was enhanced however the production of secondary metabolites was decreased in I. aquatica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Edible Part of Four Species of Shellfishes from the Calabar River, Nigeria

Ivon, Ettah Akpang, Eyo, Victor Oscar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/35649

Aims: To evaluate the proximate composition and mineral contents of edible part of four species of shellfishes (Callinectes amnicolaThais coronataTympanotonus fuscatus and Egeria radiata) from the Calabar River, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Oceanography, University of Calabar, Nigeria, between October 2016 and May 2017.

Methodology: The proximate composition was analyzed following standard methods recommended by AOAC, while mineral contents were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method.

Results: Protein and ash contents were highest in E. radiata (32.10 ± 0.06% and 3.80 ± 0.01%) and least in T. coronata (14.88 ± 0.01% and 2.57 ± 0.02%). Fat, fibre and moisture contents were highest in T. coronata (1.50 ± 0.01%, 0.06 ± 0.01% and 76.35 ±0.01%) and least in T. fuscatus (1.18 ± 0.01%), E. radiata (0.04 ± 0.01% and 61.20 ± 0.11%). Nitrogen-free extract was highest in C. amnicola (6.42 ± 0.25%) and least in E. radiata (1.50 ± 0.10%). Sodium content was highest in C. amnicola (108.34 ± 0.08 mg/100 g) and least in T. fuscatus (16.33 ± 0.01 mg/100 g). Calcium content was highest in T. coronata (188.42 ± 0.09 mg/100 g) and least in T. fuscatus (49.86 ± 0.01 mg/100 g). Copper, iron and manganese contents were highest in T.coronata (10.03 ± 0.02 mg/100 g, 14.83 ± 0.01 mg/100 g and 1.65 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) and least in C. amnicola (0.49 ± 0.01 mg/100 g), E. radiata (8.76 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) and T. fuscatus (0.21 ± 0.01 mg/100 g). All proximate composition and mineral contents except fibre content were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the four species.

Conclusion: The nutritional values of the four species of shellfishes studied are suitable for human consumption, and the species could have potential alternative for animal feed industries. Therefore, aquaculture activities related to shellfishes should be encouraged to reduce pressure and total dependence on wild stock.

Open Access Review Article

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs as Chemopreventive Agents: Evidence from Cancer Treatment in Domestic Animals

Bianca F. Bishop, Suong N. T. Ngo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40829

Aims: This study aims to systematically review currently available data on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of cancer in domestic animals to evaluate the efficacy of different treatment protocols and to suggest further recommendations for future study. 

Methodology: Literature data on the use of NSAIDs in domestic animals as chemo-preventive agents in the last decade were collected and critically reviewed. Some older sources from the primary literature search have also been included to determine the background information leading to current rationale behind NSAID use in oncology.

Results: In vitro inhibitions of tumour cell proliferation by both piroxicam and meloxicam have been demonstrated only at higher concentrations than those achievable in vivo. However, remission rates ranging from 7% to 71% have been observed when piroxicam is administered orally, either alone or in conjunction with other anticancer agents for treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder of dogs. Piroxicam has also had positive results for multicentric lymphoma and nasal tumour, with remission rates of 79% and 75% respectively. In many cases, NSAID treatment showed increased median survival times and an improved quality of life of treated animals. 

Conclusion: NSAIDs have shown potential as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of some cancers in domestic animals. This review highlights the major limitation of current studies on the role of NSAIDs in cancer treatment, including limited sample size in most cases and mainly by retrospective studies. A recommendation for future study is the investigation of multi-institutional animal trials to increase case numbers and allow for better statistical analysis with adequate control groups.