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Open Access Original Research Article

Deterioration and Microbiological Evaluation of Information Bearing Paper in a Nigerian University

F. Ayoade, S. D. Amona

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39280

Using a completely randomized block design and Redeemer’s University as a case study, air samples at the University library, clinic and registry were evaluated for microorganisms that are capable of causing paper deterioration and the physical environments were assessed for ability to predispose paper to bio-deterioration. Using the sterile swab stick, microbial samples were collected from randomly selected books and documents exhibiting signs of deterioration such as brown discolouration (foxing) and, specific codes were assigned for tracking purposes. Air monitoring was done by using the open plate method. Distinct microbial isolates were sub-cultured on agar and subsequently identified using cultural, cell morphological and biochemical tests. Results showed that printed materials were stored at sub-optimal environment required for prevention of paper deterioration at all locations. Moreover, similar microorganisms found dominating the air in sampled locations were found on the foxing spots on deteriorating printed materials. The bacterial organisms recovered from the samples were Lactobacillus casei and Staphylococcus aureus while the fungal organisms were Aspergillus niger, A flavus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria sp. Furthermore, Aspergillus flavus was the highest occurring fungal organism isolated, followed by Alternaria sp., Rhizopus and Penicillium sp in descending order of occurrence. The highest colony count 1.7×10-5 cfu/cm2 for bacteria was found in books sampled from the library, while the lowest bacterial colony counts (0.2×10-5) were found in printed materials sampled from the clinic and the registry. The higher human activity such as improper book handling and discharge of aerosol by library users perhaps accounts for the highest occurrence of bio-deterioration organisms found at this location. These results underscore the importance of moderating human activities to limit bio-deterioration of printed materials. Other methods of protecting against bio-deterioration of printed materials such as providing suitable ambience in terms of optimum temperature, lighting and relative humidity for storage of printed items are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Predominant Lactic Acid Microorganisms and Proximate Composition of Spontaneously Fermented Gari and Fufu, Cassava Food Products

Femi Ayoade, Paulina, O. Adeniji, Kellanny, S. Amole, Yeitarere, A. Amaremo, Titilayo, O. Apata, Scott, O. Fayemi, Nicholas, O. Oyejide, Uchenna D. Abazuh, Tolulope, A. Kayode, Gbenga G. Daramola, Onikepe, Folarin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40707

Aim: The present study is focused on determining if there are differences in the types of organisms responsible for spontaneous fermentation in two types of cassava food products, namely, fufu and gari, while also ensuring that the expected organoleptic properties associated with the fermentation process from this study location is reproducible.

Study Design: A Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications was adopted and used to test for significant differences between the two cassava products. 

Place and Duration of Study: The roots of two cassava varieties namely, TMS 97/0211 (white pulp) and TMS 97/2205 (yellow pulp) were obtained from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, and were processed at Ede, Nigeria between March and May 2016.

Methodology: Using standardized spontaneous fermentation methods, the two varieties of cassava, were sampled eight hourly over a period of 5 days, for lactic acid bacteria and fungi. Samples were incubated anaerobically, representative microbial populations were enumerated and identified using standard microbiological protocols. Proximate analysis and sensory evaluations were conducted.

Results: The results showed that the predominant lactic acid bacterial organisms were Lactobacillus brevisand L plantarum. On the other hand, the representative lactic acid fungal isolates were identified as Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces spp.  Investigation of succession organisms revealed differences between the dry cassava finished product, gari and the wet finished product, fufu. The fungal organisms were the predominant starter organisms found in gari, while, the predominant starter organisms found in fufu were the bacterial types.

Conclusion: The present results show that in spite of the spontaneity of the fermentation process, the yellow cassava variety supports the growth and reproduction of similar fermentation organisms as the white variety. Furthermore, the prevailing microenvironment in the fermentation set up, that is, wet or dry is the most important factor in determining the predominating organisms in the fermentation process and the organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of the final product. Results from this study show that it is possible to reproduce the organoleptic and nutritional characteristics peculiar to this test location using the isolated lactic acid microorganisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Abundance of Benthic Meiofauna in the Eastern Red Sea Coasts (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)

Amor Hedfi, Manel Ben Ali, Ahmed H. NourEl-Deen, Bandar Albogami, Montaser M. S. Hassan, Tarek Saif, Fehmi Boufahja

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41312

An investigative study was conducted during September 2017 along the eastern Red Sea coasts (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia). During this study, 5 stations were prospected and samples of sediment were especially collected in order to study their meiobenthic organisms. Results showed important variations of the environmental factors between stations mainly for salinity measurements that were clearly higher at Shuaiba lagoon (47.70 psu). Meiofauna densities ranged from 218.50 to 485.25 ind.10 cm-2. Nematodes, Polychaeta, Foraminifera and Ostracoda were the most abundant among the 14 taxa registered. The highest densities of meiofauna were related to high levels of organic matter in Al Saif bay station while the lowest were observed in Shuaiba lagoon station with muddy sediments, low dissolved oxygen and high salinity. Statistical analyses showed that dissolved oxygen rate had a positive effect on Polychaeta, Turbellaria, Gastrotricha and Tardigrada whereas Arachnida, Mollusca and Brachiopoda were respectively affected by organic matter and salinity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of NPK, Bio and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Herb Yield, Oil Production and Anatomical Structure of (Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf) Plant

A. A. El-Sayed, A. S. El-Leithy, H. M. Swaefy, Z. F. M. Senossi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41038

This study was carried out at the Department of Ornamental Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, in Egypt during the two successive seasons of 2015 and 2016. The experiment was designed using a complete randomized blocks design. Eco-friendly agriculture has its priority for safe products, so the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bio fertilizers (Nitrobien and Phosphorien) at 1, 2 and 4 g/plant, compost and poultry manure at the rates of 5, 10 and 15 ton/ feddan (feddan= 4200 m2) as alternative to NPK (recommended dose), on growth and anatomical characters of Cymbopogon citratusplants.  The results showed that the highest number of tillers per plant (49.07) and leaf area (83.99 cm2) obtained by the high rate of poultry treatment (15 ton/feddan) at the second cut in the second season. Thus the result obtained showed that the organic fertilizers had a better effect on total herb fresh and dry weights per plant than bio fertilizer treatments. The poultry manure at the rate of 10 ton/feddan resulted in the maximum total herb fresh yield with value 56.53 ton per feddan and total herb dry yield with value 16.94 ton per feddan, in the second season. The essential oil production per feddan at the first cut (in August) was more than at the second cut (in October) in both seasons. The highest oil yield per feddan was recorded in the second season by the poultry manure at the rate of 10 ton/feddan with values 82.26 and 51.85 l/feddan at the first and second cut, respectively. The anatomical study showed that the best thickness of the leaf sheath at the midrib region was due to treating the lemongrass plants by poultry at the rate of 10 ton/feddan. The increasing ratio was 16.7% compared to control. This treatment showed the best results in the total number of vascular bundles, in addition to the No. of large bundles and their dimensions. From these results, it could be recommended that poultry manure was the best treatment for lemongrass growth and getting highly clean yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Tradescantia zebrina aqueous Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

Gouri Kumar Dash, Shahnaz Majeed, Aisyah Shafiqah Binti Roslan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41341

Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles have emerged as one of the prime areas of investigation in recent years due to their wider application in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. In the present paper, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of T. zebrina and its antibacterial activity against common human pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidisStaphylococcus aureus, Salmonella entericaEscherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The antibacterial activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were compared with amikacin which was used as the positive control. The results of the study revealed good zones of inhibitions of the nanoparticles against test organisms that were comparable to amikacin and hence has a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against bacterial diseases.