Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Six Fungicides against Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani Associated with Peach Seedlings Decline in Tunisian Nurseries

Sabrine Mannai, Najet Horrigue-Raouani, Naima Boughalleb-M’Hamdi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41295

Aims: This study investigated the efficiency of six fungicides against Fusarium spp. associated to peach seedling decline in Tunisian nurseries.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, 4042, Sousse, Tunisia, between March 2016 and June 2016.

Methodology: The activity of six fungicides against Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani associated with peach seedling decline in Tunisian nurseries was evaluated in vitro and in vivo.

Results: The in vitro test showed that Carbendazim was the most effective at a low dose (10 ppm) against F. solani with 84.39% of hyphal growth inhibition, while it gives 60.55% of growth inhibition against F. oxysporum at 100 ppm. The percent of growth inhibition generated by Mancozeb was between 59.02 and 90.21% at 50 and 100 ppm, respectively. The efficacy of fosetyl-Al was not important in vitro at 10, 25, 50 and 100 ppm against the two tested pathogens. Hymexazol revealed to be effective against F. oxysporumbut without effect on F. solani for all used doses. The Chinosol was effective at different doses against F. oxysporum, with 88% of growth inhibition at 50 ppm for the two tested species. Thus, the fosetyl-Al, hymexazol and chinosol are the most effective on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Carbendazim was moderately effective against F. oxysporum (40. 15%), whereas it was the most effective against F. solani (98.02%). The mancozeb and metalaxyl-M+mancozeb were the lowest effective against the two pathogens tested with percents of inhibition of 27.41% and 28.96% for F. oxysporum respectively, and 48.02% and 42.46% for F. solani, respectively.

Results of in vivo test indicated that disease severity parameters of peach seedlings recorded after three months of inoculation by Fusarium spp. showed that the fosetyl-Al and metalaxyl-M + mancozeb reduced significantly root browning induced by Fusarium oxysporum by 62.55%. The mancozeb and carbendazim reduced also the root browning without significant effect. Whereas, all products didn’t reduce the severity of root browning or the vegetative sanitary states index of peach seedlings inoculated by F. solani. For the growth parameters, plants inoculated by F. oxysporum and treated by fosetyl-Al and metalaxyl-M+mancozeb increased the root weight by 34% and 24.89%, respectively. The metalaxyl-M+mancozeb improved also the plant height by 8.05% compared to the control inoculated by F. oxysporum. However, chinosol was the only product that improved plant height by 10.31% and root weight by 9.78% of plants inoculated by F. solani.

Conclusion: The fungicides Alliette express (fosetyl-Al), Ridomil Gold (mancozeb+ metalaxyl-M),Dithane-M45 (mancozeb) and Prodazim (carbendazim) were the most effective in vivo against F. oxysporum associated with a peach seedling decline in Tunisian nurseries, whereas Beltanol (chinosol) is the only product that improved the seedling growth inoculated by F. solani. Thus, it will be important to test them in the future against the other genera associated with this disease like Pythium and Phytophthora species. Then, it is necessary to test them against the combination of these pathogens because the causal agent of this disease is a complex.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic and Yield Characteristics of Grain Sorghum as Influenced by Environment Factors and Genotype

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, R. M. Abd El-Salam, M. R. A. Hovny, Walaa Y. S. Yaseen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41324

Genotypes tested in different locations, years or planting dates often change in yield due to the response of genotypes to environmental factors such as temperature, soil fertility etc. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of environment factors on agronomic and yield characteristics of grain sorghum and to identify the most adapted B-line(s) to different environments in Egypt. Six environments with 25 sorghum B-lines were conducted at two locations (Giza and Shandaweel) in 2012 and 2013 years and two planting dates in Giza location. A randomised complete block design was used in each environment with three replications. Mean squares due to genotype × environment were significant for all studied traits. Increasing temperature from second planting date to first planting date in Giza across seasons caused the significant decrease in grain yield per plant (GYPP) by about 15.3%. This reduction in yield was associated with significant decreases in the number of grains/plant (GPP) (9.29%), plant height (PH) (7.31%) and days to 50% flowering (DTF) (6.92%). Moreover, higher temperature in 2012 than 2013 season in Shandaweel caused significant (p<0.01) reduction in GYPP by 18.04%, GPP (34.76%) and DTF (8.33%). Though the temperature was higher in Shandaweel than Giza, the increase in GYPP in Shandaweel than Giza could probably due to the better physical and chemical properties of the soil. Across all environments, the B-line BTX-TSC-20 followed by ICSB-88003 showed the highest GYPP. BTX-TSC-20 followed by ICSB-1808 under E1 and E3 environments (Giza, first planting date in 2012 and 2013), ICSB-14 and ICSB-88003 under E2 and E4 (Giza, second planting date in 2012 and 2013), ICSB-11 followed by BTX 2-1 under E5 (Shandaweel, 2012 season) and ICSB-88003 followed by ICSB-70 under E6 (Shandaweel, 2013 season)   were the most adapted B-lines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodegradation of Anionic Surfactants (SDS) by Bacteria Isolated from Waste Water in Taif Governate

Amany G. Ibrahim, Hassan E. Abd Elsalam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41436

Surfactants are synthetic chemicals which are utilized as crude material in cleanser production. Sodium dodecyl sulfate, (SDS) is an anionic surfactant that broadly utilized everywhere throughout the world. Which represent severe hazards effects on the ambient environment. Bacterial strains were isolated from different contaminated sites in Taif Governate (KSA) and screened for SDS degradation. Four bacterial isolates showed high degradation for SDS. The factors that affect the degradation rate of SDS were studied in this work. The selected isolates that can degrade SDS were found to degrade SDS at pH 7-7.5. The optimum temperature was at 30ºC and optimum agitation was at 150 rpm. The degree of SDS degradation was increased when the bacterial isolates were combined together. It was found that the four isolates were able to degrade different concentration of SDS until 4%. Different incubation time was studied and it appear that the degradation begin after 24 hrs. but the optimum degradation  occur after 15 days. Also different inoculum size was tested. These isolates were physiologically and molecularly identified. These potential strains were biochemically characterized as Gram-negative bacteria. Subsequently, partial sequence of 16S rRNA identified these strains as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (H), Pseudomonas otitidis (A3)Enterobacter cloacae (A5) and Klebsiella aerogenes (A6). This work reveals that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (H), possess greater potential to degrade SDS when compared with other bacterial strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Protective Effect of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) against Oxidative Stress and Nephropathy Induced by Diabetes in Male Rats: A Biochemical, Molecular and Histopathological Study

Gaber M. G. Shehab, Mohammed A. Alblihed, Ashraf Y. Albarakati, Mohamed A. M. El Awady

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41805

Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a significant health problem worldwide and type II diabetes is one of the main health problems facing Saudi society, which is often caused by obesity and increased cholesterol in the blood. Due to the seriousness of diabetes and its complications, the present study was designed to examine the renoprotective effect of pomegranate in diabetes induced oxidative stress and kidney injury.

Study Design: Adult male Albino rats (200–250 g) were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) followed by treatment for 8 weeks. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (each group, n = 10): normal control (NC); non-diabetic animals fed on commercial diet, diabetic group (DG); diabetic animals fed on commercial diet, pomegranate treated group (PTG); diabetic animals fed on experimental diet contains 20% dried pomegranate, and drug treated group (MTG); diabetic animals fed on commercial diet and treated with metformin (500 mg/kg).

Methodology: At the end of the experimental study (8 weeks) blood glucose levels, lipid peroxidation, biochemical analysis of oxidative stress parameters and biomarkers of kidney damage were determined. The mRNA expression level of oxidative stress defense genes (SOD, CAT ,GR and GPx), as well as the NADPH oxidase (subunits p22phox and p47phox) and the inflammatory factors regulator gene, NF-κB were also evaluated in kidney homogenates using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, histopathological evaluation of kidney was also studied.

Results: Treatment with pomegranate significantly ameliorated the elevated oxidative stress levels in STZ induced diabetic rats resulting in decreased lipid peroxidation and NO concentration, and increased endogenous antioxidant enzymes levels (SOD and GSH). Biomarkers of kidney damage (urea and creatinine) and blood glucose levels were significantly normalized in pomegranate treated group compared to the diabetic group. At the molecular level, a significant enhancement of gene expression of the antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, GR and GPx) was observed in pomegranate treated group compared to the diabetic group. In contrast, significant down-regulation of the NADPH oxidase subunits (p22phox and p47phox) as well as the inflammatory factors regulator gene, NF-κB was recorded. Moreover, the histopathological examinations confirmed the protective effects of pomegranate by normalizing the kidney damage.

Conclusion: This study validates pomegranate as a promising candidate in preventing diabetes associated complications such as nephropathy through its antioxidant activity and its effects on the activity and regulation of oxidative stress defense gene expression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Hoya parasitica Variegata - An In-vitro Study

Israt Jahan Bulbul, Sumaiya Binta Fashiuddin, Md. Asaduzzaman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39925

Aim: Oxidative stress is responsible for the development of different neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, Hoya parasitica variegata belonging to the family Apocynaceae was evaluated for its cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities with an objective of searching a new natural source to treat different neurological disorders.

Study Design: The methanolic extract of H. parasitica was subjected for in-vitro evaluation which included antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh, from July to December 2016.

Methodology: The cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities were assessed by total phenol content, flavonoid content, total antioxidant, iron  reducing power capacity, DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, lipid peroxidation inhibition, metal chelating activity as well as acetylcholinestrase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) inhibitory activities.

Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extract were 53.31 mg of gallic acid and 129.88 mg of quercetin equivalent respectively. The methanolic extract of H. parasitica (MEHP) showed considerable total antioxidant activity and reducing capacity. In DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, the MEHP showed IC50 of 485 μg/mL and 39.65 μg/mL respectively. In lipid peroxidation inhibition activity MEHP showed IC50 value of 857.63 μg/mL and exhibited metal chelating activity with IC50 value 961.21 μg/mL. The MEHP represented inhibition of bovine brain acetylcholinesterase and human blood butyrylcholinesterase and the IC50 value was 269.5 μg/mL and 343.14 μg/mL respectively.

Conclusion: The results obtained from present study revealed that MEHP has considerable amount of antioxidant activity as well as anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity suggesting its potential use in different neurological disorders such as AD.