Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Delignification, Desilication and Cellulosic Content Availability in Paddy Straw via Physico-chemical Pretreatments

M. G. Mona Fatin Syazwanee, A. G. Nurul Shaziera, M. Z. Nur Ain Izzati, A. A. Nor Azwady, M. Muskhazli

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40947

Aim: Paddy straw consists of cellulose and hemicellulose as their plant materials leading to their potential to produce bioethanol through several processes such as pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. Among these processes, pretreatment of paddy straw is particularly important for enzymatic hydrolysis process as they are being limited by the presence of ash and silica content. This study was set to observe the effect of different pretreatments on cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ash content of paddy straw.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, between October 2015 and June 2016.

Methodology: Pretreatments comprises the combination of physical (mechanical) and chemical treatments to modify the lignocellulosic structure while reduce lignin and separate silica content in paddy straw fibre. Paddy straw was prepared into three different sizes (2mm, 5mm and 8 mm) for physical treatment. Autoclave, boiled and four different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (v/v) and (w/v) respectively) of nitric acid and sodium hydroxide, respectively for chemical treatment were used on paddy straw.

Results: Size five millimeter paddy straw showed the highest cellulose content (35.61%) compared to the other sizes and when the paddy pretreated with 2% (w/v) sodium hydroxide (NaOH), the percentage of cellulose content escalated to 72.47%. Pretreatment of 2% (w/v) NaOH have performed the most efficient delignification and desilication process (1.02% lignin; 5.44 ash content); and the performance was supported with SEM images on surface area of the paddy straw with large distortion caused by the treatment.

Conclusion: Therefore, a physico-chemical pretreatment of size 5 mm and 2% (w/v) NaOH was found to be the most suitable condition to break the cellulose-lignin complex and make the paddy straw becomes feasible for biofuel production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study between Powder and Nanoparticles of Dried Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Fruit Peels in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats: Anti-microbial and Anti-genotoxic Capacity

Eman M. Hegazy, Naglaa A. Hafiz, Nehad N. Rozik, Wagdy K. B. Khalil

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41988

Aim: To overcome the toxic effects attributed to the use medicinal treatments against diabetes there is a desire toward using natural food and folk remedies. So, the aim this study was to use nanoparticles of dried cactus fruit peels (Opuntia ficus-indica) compared with powder materials to control blood glucose in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, Polymer and Pigments Department, and Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, Egypt, between April 2017 and March 2018.

Methodology: Powder and nanoparticles were used to determine the fatty acids content and assessment the dietary fiber contents, mycotoxin contamination as well as examine the antimicrobial activity. Moreover, male albino rats were treated with single i.p. dose of STZ to induce diabetes. STZ induced-rats were divided into several groups and treated daily with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt of cactus fruit peels powder or nanoparticles orally for 2 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were aspirated to determine glucose levels as well as liver and pancreas tissues were collected for the biological analyses.

Results: The results of the present study exhibited that both extracts of cactus fruit peels either powder or nanoparticles were able to reduce significantly the glucose levels and increase the expression of insulin and insulin receptor genes in induced-diabetic rats. Moreover, cactus fruit peels extracts exhibited antifungal and antibacterial activities and increase in the antioxidant enzymes (GPx and CAT) as well as anti-genotoxic effects in DM-induced rats. Furthermore, nanoparticles of dried cactus fruit peels were more effective in control glucose levels, gene expression, antimicrobial and anti-genotoxic activities compared with powder materials even in its low dose.

Conclusion: The results conclude that the nanoparticles form of cactus fruit peels extracts was much more effective in the therapeutic action than powder form. The anti-diabetic effect of cactus fruit peels nanoparticles could be attributed to its content from dietary fiber. Moreover, the antifungal and antibacterial activities as well as the anti-genotoxic ability of cactus fruit peels nanoparticles could be attributed to fatty acids and/or GABA contents which were more able to control oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Identification and Pathogenicity of Fungal Organisms Causing Postharvest Spoilage of Tomato Fruits during Storage

Liamngee Kator, A. C. Iheanacho, Kortse P. Aloho

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41804

Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of fungal organisms causing postharvest spoilage of tomato fruits during storage was carried out. Tomato fruits showing symptoms of rot were collected from the store house. Small sizes were cut and surface sterilized in 1% of Sodium hydrochloride and rinsed in several changes of sterile distilled water. They were plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and observed for fungal growth. Identification was done macroscopically and microscopically. For pathogenicity, healthy tomato fruits were plugged with pure cultures of the fungal isolates and disease incidence and severity were evaluated. Five fungi namely Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium waksmanii, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium   oxysporum and Colletotrichum asianum were isolated. Incidence of decay on healthy tomato fruits was 100% for all fungal isolates while the control was 0%. T-test revealed significant differences between the inoculated and the controls at 1% and 5% levels of probability. Severity of decay ranged from 51–53% for all fungal isolates, while the controls showed 0%. T-test revealed significant differences between   the inoculated and the control at 1% and 5% levels of probability. Pathogenic microorganisms on tomato are a potential health hazard to man and animals following ingestion.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Response of Human Erythrocytes to NO-Stimulation

A. K. Martusevich, A. G. Soloveva, A. V. Dmitrochenkov, A. A. Ezhevskaya, A. V. Razumovsky

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41266

Background: The research of recent decades has demonstrated the participation of nitrogen monoxide in various metabolic and regulatory intracellular cascades. However, the majority of works in this field seeks to detect the functional activity of endogenous NO. In opposite, the biological effects of the exogenous nitrogen monoxide have been insufficiently looked into. That is why the aim of the present study was a comprehensive assessment of the effect of various NO-stimulation options on the state of human erythrocytes in vitro.

Methods: This study used 15 healthy subjects’s (20-45 years old) blood samples divided into five portions. The first portion was allocated as the control; the second portion was treated with a flow from the Plazon apparatus (800 ppm NO); the third portion was processed in a stream tenfold diluted with air (80 ppm NO), fourth portion – with a gas mixture containing 75 ppm NO and fifth portion was introduced with a solution of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC, 3 mM). In all blood samples we estimated the peroxide resistance of erythrocyte, levels of malonic dialdehyde and lactate, superoxide dismutase activity, activity of lactate dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Results: We stated that blood processing with high NO dose (800 ppm) causes elevation of peroxide resistance of erythrocyte, levels of malonic dialdehyde and lactate with inhibition of activity of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase (in forward reaction) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. In opposite, low NO dose (75 ppm) and DNIC induced the decreasing of peroxide resistance of erythrocyte and stimulation of enzymes catalytic activity.

Conclusion: The study has revealed that low doses of gaseous NO and a solution of DNIC produce the most favorable effect on the oxidative and energy metabolism, as well as on the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase of erythrocytes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection of the Virulence Genes in Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy and Diarrheic Calves in Southern Iraq

Rasha M. Othman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40765

Aim: To investigate the stx1, stx2, hly, cnf2, sfa/foc, afaI, papC, and afaC virulence-associated genes of pathogenic Escherichia coli, isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic calves.

Materials and Methods: The genes to be investigated were first isolated from the stool samples obtained from 150 diarrheic and non-diarrheic calves, between the ages of one day and six months, during the period 2016 to 2017. Rectal swabs were aseptically and randomly collected from several herds, from different regions in the province of Basra.

Results of Research: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results showed that pathogenic E. coli were detected in a total of 34 out of 41 (82.9%) distributed as 23 out of 26 (88.5%) and 11 out of 15 (73.3%) of the diarrheagenic and non-diarrheagenic calves, respectively. The results also showed that stx1hlyA, and stx2genes showed a higher incidence of distribution in both diarrheagenic and non-diarrheagenic calves, in a percentage rate of 69.6%, 65.2%, 56.5% and 63.6%, 63.6%, 45.5%, respectively. Moreover, eight different virulence gene profiles were established in the present study. Most of the isolates analyzed had at least two or three gene arrangements and only four isolates were seen in a combination of four genes stx1, stx2, hlyA, and afaI.

Conclusion: It is concluded that E. coli isolates from healthy and diarrheic calves that carried various virulence genes, of which the most frequent were stx1, stx2, and hlyA. A high percentage of these isolates are found in both diarrheic and non-diarrheic calves.