The relationship between some haematological and lipid indices were studied and compared in white albino rats using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) extracts. The effect of garlic and onion extracts were each tested with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg body wt. concentrations for 28 days. Biochemical parameters were assayed using standard methods. The extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered the serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) but increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentration when compared between the control and the test groups though there were no significant differences (P>0.05) when the effects of the extracts were compared at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg body wt. equal treatments. The results show that there was no significant difference between the effects of the extracts on the haematological indices. The total cholesterol and triacylglycerols concentrations positively correlated to the haematological indices. The results collectively indicate that the extracts have hypolipidaemic effects which were not significant to each other. The results also show that though the extract lowered the TC and TG concentration, they indicated a direct relationship to the haematological indices.
Objective: Energy drinks are popular and widespread and raising concerns about implications on human health. Hepatological, histological and renal function tests of Sprague-Dawley albino rats were investigated in rat liver, brain and kidney by administering “power-horse” energy drink. Methodology: For this study twenty healthy adult female rats (142 – 148g) were divided into 4 groups with 5 rats in each group and they were treated as follows: Control group was given water only after acclimatization for 28 days when food and water were freely available to the four groups. Low dose group (administered energy drink of 10mg/kg body weight) and high dose group (administered energy drink of 20mg/kg body weight). Recovery groups received high dose of energy drink (20mg/kg body weight) for 14 days and allowed a recovery phase of 7 days thereafter when they received water and standard diet. Rats were sacrificed and blood samples collected through orbital sinus and cardiac puncture. Liver, brain and kidney tissues for all the groups were harvested. Liver and renal function parameters were analyzed while liver; brain and kidney were histologically examined. Results: Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities increased significantly (p<0.05) in the experimental groups compared with the control (49.83±0.38 U/L, 582.33±9.06 U/L vs. 44.40±0.60 U/L, 331±4.90 U/L) while the activities of ALT and AST in the recovery group reduced, although not significantly (P>0.05) compared with the high dose group. Urea concentrations in the experimental groups increased (P<0.05) significantly compared with the control (10.10±0.15mmol/L vs.3.66±0.10 mmol/L). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the concentrations of creatinine in the experimental groups compared with the control group (44.20±00 mmol/L vs. 44.20±02 mmol/L). Serum Na and HCO32- in the experimental groups increased (P<0.05) significantly when compared with the control group (141.07± 0.56, 28.03±0.09 vs. 136.62± 0.72, 23.15±0.65). Conclusion: Data of the present study indicate that “Power Horse” consumption has adverse effects on the liver and therefore requires caution in its consumption.
The objective of this study was to estimate natural, fishing and total mortality, survival and exploitation rates of Clupeonella cultriventris in the southern Caspian Sea. Survival rate and natural mortality were calculated using catch curve and Pauly methods, respectively. Natural and fishing mortality have been estimated up to 0.671yr-1 and 0.849 yr-1, respectively. According to catch curve method, the annual survival rate of common kilka has been estimated up to 0.218 yr-1. With owning this survival rate, the instantaneous coefficient of total mortality of common kilka has been estimated up to 1.52 yr-1. The exploitation rate of common kilka has been estimated up to 0.55. It was revealed that common kilka has been dominant in the catch because of habitat expansion and the change in life depth. It was concluded that common kilka stock is under over-fishing now.
The objective of this study is host-parasite relationship among Loranthaceae flowering shrubs, Myrmecophytic fruit trees and ants. The study was conducted in 2009 in the garden plots and orchards of houses in the Logbessou district of Douala, Cameroon. We inventoried a total of 141 myrmecophytic fruit trees (diameter ≤ 45 cm) of which 95 (67.3%) were parasitized by flowering-shrub epiphytes (Loranthaceae). These trees belong to 14 species, 11 genera and 8 families. Among the eight species of ants inventoried on the trees, two were arboreal-dwelling and six were ground-dwelling, arboreal-foraging species. They belonged to two sub-families: the Formicinae, which were mostly represented by two genera, Camponotus and Paratrechina; and the Myrmicinae, which were more abundant (87.5%). The ants nested in the domatia of myrmecophyte hosts or hollow branches, trunks and dead suckers of Loranthaceae. Crematogaster was the most frequent genus and dominant ant on all of the parasitized host trees.