Open Access Original Research Article

No Association between Urogenital Schistosomiasis and HIV Infection among Children in Ore Community, Southwestern Nigeria

C. Igbeneghu, S. A. Adedokun, A. A. Akindele, J. M. Olisekodiaka, D. E. Idolor, O. Ojurongbe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42007

Aim: To determine if there was any association between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection among children in Ore Community, Southwestern Nigeria.

Methodology: Urine samples were collected from 438 children and examined microscopically for ova of Schistosoma haematobium. A sample of 3 ml of blood was drawn from each participant for HIV test. Antibodies to HIV were determined using Determine HIV1/2 kit, Unigold kit and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 30.1% while that of HIV infection was 0.9%. None of the 132 S. haematobium infected children had HIV infection while 1.3% of the 306 children negative for S. haematobium were positive for HIV test.

Conclusion: This study did not identify an association between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection among children in Ore, Southwestern Nigeria. Therefore, urogenital schistosomiasis may not play a significant role in the spread of HIV infection in a locality where HIV prevalence is low.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Components of Red Type Sorghum Indigenous to Ekpoma Area of Edo State as Influenced by Soaking Techniques

S. O. Omoikhoje, D. O. Obasoyo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41221

Aim: This study investigated the effects of different soaking techniques on the nutritional value and anti-nutrient substances of red type sorghum.

Study Design: Completely randomized design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science Central Laboratory, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State of Nigeria between 10th and 27th of June, 2017.

Methodology: Raw sorghum grains were divided into five groups with the first group unsoaked (US), while others were soaked in water (SW), soaked in water/germination (SWG), soaked in wood ash (SWA) and soaked in wood ash/germination (SWAG). All the samples were analysed in triplicates for proximate and mineral compositions, fibre fractions and some anti-nutrient substances.

Results: The results revealed that soaking significantly (P≤0.05) improved the proximate and mineral components, fibre fractions and reduced the anti-nutrient substances of the intact grains. The proximate, minerals, fibre fractions and percentage reduction of the anti-nutrient substances were better in SWA and SWAG samples compared to others.

Conclusion: Therefore, for a significant reduction of the anti-nutrient factors as well as the improvement and bioavailability of the component nutrients of red type sorghum, soaking in wood ash extract/germination is adequate.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Culicoides Vector Species for BTV Transmission in Central and Central West of Anatolia

Sibel Yavru, Bilal Dik, Oya Bulut, Ugur Uslu, Orhan Yapici, Mehmet Kale, Oguzhan Avci

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42170

The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of BTV infection and possible vector species in different regions of Turkey. In the study, blood samples taken from 666 Akkaraman sheep were examined. 2000 Culicoides specimens were captured by light traps from the same provinces and 20 Culicoides spp. were identified. Blood sera samples were investigated by c-ELISA and SNT for detecting Abs to BTV. Sera samples were detected as positive 67 (10.06%) and 160 (24.02%) by SNT and ELISA, respectively. SN50 values of the 67 positive sera samples by SNT were detected between 1/2.38 and 1/200. All sheep blood samples and pools became Culicoides spp. samples were examined for BTV Ag presence by BTACE. Thirty six (5.40%) blood samples were detected as positive, but no from Culicoides pools. In the meantime, all sheep blood samples and Culicoides samples were directly investigated for BTV genome by one step RT-PCR. Fourteen (2.10%) blood samples and 7 (11.11%) Culicoides species were detected as positive. Also, the blood samples and the Culicoides samples were inoculated into Vero cell culture and passaged 5 times. Twenty nine (4.35%) blood samples cultured in Vero cell culture lines showed CPE but non CPE was observed in Culicoides samples. While 5 (17.24%) of 29 CPE positive isolates were identified as BTV by One Step RT-PCR. Total 26 samples (14 blood samples, 7 Culicoides samples and 5 supernatants) which detected BTV genome positive by One Step RT-PCR were serotyped. At the end of the study, while 23 of 26 samples were serotyped as BTV-9, two samples were serotyped as BTV-4. One sample (C. punctatus) from Culicoides was not serotyped as none of serotypes of BTV. In the present study, BTV was isolated for the first time from C. circumscriptus, C. kibunensis, and C. punctatus in Turkey.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Role of Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) as Carriers of Medically Important Parasites and Microorganisms in College of Agriculture, Lafia, Students Hostels, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

I. A. Alaku, A. A. Galadima, D. A. Mundi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/36961

Cockroaches are found in human dwellings. They are distributed worldwide. They play an important role in transmitting diseases either mechanically and occasionally biologically. Numerous bacteria and parasites of medical importance have been isolated from cockroaches. This research was therefore designed to identify parasites and to isolate microorganisms of medical importance from external surfaces and gastrointestinal tract of cockroaches collected from different parts of student hostels of College of Agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of 170 cockroaches were trapped and collected from different location of the male and female hostels in the College and were examined using standard parasitological and microbial techniques. Normal saline was used in the washing and examination of external surfaces, dissection and examination of gastrointestinal tract; culturing the external surfaces, wash and intestine homogenates of the cockroaches in groups. Ova and cycts of some human parasites were found from the gut of cockroaches Trichuris trichiura (21.17%), Ascaris lumbricoides (23.52%), Entamoeba histolytica (24.70%), Hookworm (12.94%), and Enterobius vermicularis (15.29%) and also some species of bacteria and fungi were also recovered from the body of the cockroaches. Some microorganism of medical important were also recovered; Staplylococcus aureus (25.88%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (21.17%), Bacillus cereus(20.58%) Escherichia coli (32.35%). The result from this study indicates that cockroaches as a domestic pests could pose a health problem to human. Therefore, we must control cockroaches particularly in indoors, sewage and solid wastes.

Open Access Review Article

Advanced Forms of Sulphur Formulations for Improving Use Efficiency in Crop Species

Sonam Singh, Deepranjan Sarkar, Mehjabeen ., M. Bhudevi, S. Rakesh, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Shantanu Kar, Amitava Rakshit

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/39763

Widespread incidences of sulphur (S) deficiency in agricultural crops and soils have been reported globally. To meet this gap, various new forms of S fertilizers are available in the market, and they are in the process of testing for their validations in varied type of crop species and soils. A current global trend of using these advanced S formulations for plant production has emerged to overcome the challenges of S nutrition in crops. This paper highlights the potential benefits of improved S fertilizers in agriculture as compared to conventional S fertilizers. However, there is also a need for increasing awareness among the growers to recognize the importance of S (fourth primary plant nutrient) and simultaneously exploring the options for elevating the efficiency of S.