Open Access Original Research Article

Gross Morphometrical Studies on Pectoral Limb of Pariah Kite (Milvus migrans)

Yogita Tiwari, A. Pandey, A. B. Shrivastav, M. P. S. Tomar, Rakhi Vaish

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 111-116

The fore limb or pectoral limb of Pariah kite (Milvus migrans) was studied for gross morphometry. It was procured from Department of Wildlife Health and Management, Veterinary College, Jabalpur, (M.P.), India. The pectoral limb of Pariah kite was comprised of following bones; Humerus, Radius and Ulna, Carpals, Carpometacapus and Digits. Humerus was longest and largest of all bones of fore limb. The proximal extremity was larger and more flattened craniocaudally than distal extremity. The radius was smaller and thinner than the ulna. Both the bones were separated by wide interosseus space proximally and narrow space distally. The outer surface of the shaft had a series of small bony projections which represented points of attachment for secondary feathers of wing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plasma Lipoprotein Profile in Newly Hatched Chicks Following in Ovo Ghrelin Administration

Alireza Lotfi, Habib Aghdam Shahryar, Mohammad Narimani-Rad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 117-122

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigation on effects of in ovo administrated exogenous ghrelin on plasma lipid profile in hatched broiler chicks.
Methodology: 250 eggs were obtained from commercial broiler breeder (Ross 308 strain) farm. the eggs were divided into five experimental groups; T1 or eggs without any injection (control), T2 or eggs in ovo injected with 50ng ghrelin at embryonic day-5, T3 or eggs in ovo injected with 100ng ghrelin at embryonic day-5, T4 or eggs in ovo injected with 50ng ghrelin at embryonic day-10, and T5 or eggs in ovo injected with 100ng ghrelin at embryonic day-10. Similar in ovo experiments were done for all of injected groups on day-5 or -10. At end of incubation, blood samples from each group were collected following chick decapitation and analyzed for determination of plasma lipoprotein concentrations. 
Results: Exogenous ghrelin administration at different embryonic days couldn’t have any considerable effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) or high density lipoprotein (HDL)/LDL-C. Plasma HDL-C concentration had increase follow in ovo injection of 100ng ghrelin at day-5 (P<0.01) and had slight increase at day-10 (group T3 and T5). 
Conclusion: As conclusion, in ovo administration of 100ng ghrelin at embryonic day-5 could elevate plasma HDL-C concentrations of newly-hatched chicks without any significant effect on LDL-C, VLDL or HDL-LDL ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Addition of Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus) Flour on the Antioxidant Properties of Plantain Musa paradisiaca Flour

Foluso O. Adetuyi, Eniayo A. Komolafe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 143-152

Aim: This study aims at determining the antioxidant properties of plantain flour fortified with okra seed flour (full fat and defatted). 
Methodology: Plantain Musa paradisiaca and fibrous okra Abelmoschus esculentus that cannot be cut with kitchen knife were used for this work. The plantains were made into flours while the seeds were removed from the okra pod, sundried, milled and sieved. The Okra seed flour (full fat and defatted) was used to fortify the plantain flour separately in the following ratio 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30. The order of antioxidant activity was evaluated by measurement of total phenolic content, vitamin C content, ABTS scavenging ability and the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) of the fortified plantain flour. 
Results: The process of defatting caused a significant reduction in the total phenolic content (2.85%), vitamin C content (2.63%), ABTS scavenging ability (17.2%) and the reducing power (13.75%) of the okra seed flour. The antioxidant properties of the okra seed flour were significantly higher(P ≤ 0.05) than that of the plantain flour except the vitamin C where there was no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) (plantain flour: 6.30mg/100g, defatted okra seed flour: 6.66 mg/100g and full fat okra seed flour: 6.84 mg/100g). The fortification of the plantain flour with the okra seed flour resulted in significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the total phenolic content, ABTS scavenging ability and the ferric reducing power of the fortified plantain flour as the percentage of okra seed flour increased. 
Conclusion: The addition of okra seed flour to plantain flour should be encouraged because it increased the antioxidant properties of the resultant fortified plantain flour.

Open Access Review Article

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine – A Review

V. Ramakrishna, P. B. Janardhan, L. Sudarsanareddy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 79-110

Regenerative medicine is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the replacement, repair or restoration of injured tissues. This field emerged from the need for reconstruction in children and adults in whom tissue has been damaged by diseases, trauma and congenital anomalies. Stem cell research is a promising field with an alluring potential for therapeutic intervention, and thus begs a critical understanding of the long-term consequences of stem cell replacement. Stem cells have unrestricted potential to divide and this strength is used for the regeneration and repair of cells within the body during tissue damage. Research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. This promising area of science is also leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease. In our present review we tried to provide the information about stem cells and their significant role in regenerative medicine for treatment of various diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Image analysis in In Vivo Stem Cell Tracking

Hossein Rabbani, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 123-142

Regenerative medicine has begun to define a new perspective of future clinical practice. The lack of basic data regarding to basic stem cell biology-survival, migration, differentiation, integration in a real time manner when transplanted into damaged tissue remains a major challenge for design stem cell therapies. So, visualization of injected stem cells provides additional insight into the future therapeutic benefits. Although current imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, bioluminescence imaging, and fluorescence imaging offer some morphological as well as functional information, they lack the ability to assess and track in vivo biological phenomenon, a pivotal link for greater mechanistic understanding following cell-based intervention. This review will therefore discuss currently available in vivo imaging modalities and image processing techniques which may potentiate this field of research.