Open Access Case study

Survey of Olive Fungal Disease in North of Iran

S. J. Sanei, S. E. Razavi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 27-36

New plantations of Olive tree in northern Iran are usually being severely affected by wilt or dieback and death. To determine the etiology of this problem, a study was carried out in samples of affected young trees collected in Golestan, Zanjan, Gilan and Khorasan provinces, the north of Iran during 2004-2009. Fungi that cause olive disease or associated with stem cuttings are listed. From this list Verticillium dahliae and Fusicladium oleagineum were the most common on a wide range area and on all cultivated cultivars. Several fungi were isolated from seedling rotted roots and some recorded associated with stem cuttings. Other fungal species associated with death of young olive trees in the field or in the nurseries, including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, Phytophthora megasperma, Phytophthora nicotiana, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani and some stem decay fungi such as species of Ascochyta, Alternaria, Cephalosporium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Diplococcium, Diplodia, Nigrospora, Sphaeropsis, Stemphyllium and Ulocladium. As the fungal pathogen can affect olive production, these findings are potentially important to the future olive industry in northern Iran.

Open Access Original Research Article

Length-Weight and Length-Girth Relationships, Relative Weight and Relative Condition Factor of Four Commercial Fish Species of Northern Persian Gulf

M. Daliri, S. Y. Paighambari, M. J. Shabani, M. Pouladi, R. Davoodi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 15-26

Length-weight and length-girth relationships (LWR and LGR), relative weight (Wr) and relative condition factor (Krel) of four commercial fish species (Lethrinus nebulosus, Carangoides talamparoides, Lutjanus argentimaculatus and Argyrops spinifer) from northern Persian Gulf (Bushehr coastal waters) were calculated. Samples were collected on monthly basis during December 2006 to June 2008 using pot nets. The LWR had a significant correlation for all species and the exponent b ranged from 2.6657 (L. nebulosus) to 2.8353 (L. argentimaculatus). All length-girth relationships also were highly signiï¬cant and the exponent b ranged from 0.2776 (L. nebulosus) to 0.3591(A. spinifer). Relative weight ranged from 0.50±0.59 (C. talamparoides) to 1.02±1.35 (L. argentimaculatus). Relative condition factor also ranged from 1.01±0.17 (A. spinifer) to 1.05±0.5 (L. nebulosus). In conclusion, this study provides basic information for fishery biologists and managers in the Persian Gulf.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Sheep Wool Quality Traits

B. W. B. Holman, A. E. O. Malau-Aduli

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14

The commercial value of unprocessed wool is determined by its intrinsic quality; an indication of capacity to meet both processor and consumer demands. Wool quality is evaluated through routine assessment of characteristics that include mean fibre diameter, coefficient of variation, staple characteristics, comfort factor, spinning fineness, fibre curvature and clean fleece yield. The association between these characteristics with wool quality stems from their correlation with raw wool processing performance in terms of speed, durability, ultimate use as apparel or carpet wool, and consumer satisfaction with the end-product. An evaluation of these characteristics allows wool quality to be objectively quantified prior to purchase and processing. The primary objective of this review was to define and explore these aforementioned key wool characteristics, focusing on their impact on quality, desirable parameters and methodology behind their quantification. An in-depth review of relevant published literature on these wool characteristics in sheep is presented.