Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective Properties of NMDA R1 Antagonist (Ketamine) in Cyanide Treated Neurons in vitro

O. M. Ogundele, T. O. Olaniyan, B. J. Dare, D. R. Omotoso, O. D. Omotosho, O. C. Akintayo, A. E. Memudu, E. A. Caxton-Martins

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 58-65

Aims: This study aims at investigating possible means of reducing cyanide toxicity by blocking NMDA R1 via ketamine (an NMDA R1 antagonist). This is to provide a template for quick arrest of cyanide toxicity in neurons under oxygen deprived condition.
Place and Duration of Study: Bingham University, Department of Anatomy, Karu, Nigeria. The duration of the study was100 minutes.
Methodology: Freshly harvested cortical tissue blocks were perfused in accessory cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) containing all the necessary salts and glucose. The cultures were treated with ACSF (Control), ACSF+KCN (potassium cyanide), ACSF+KCN+Ketamine and ACSF+Ketamine for a total duration of 100 minutes at 37ºC.
Results: The Ketamine had a protective and reversal effects on the tissues both for oxygen deprivation and cyanide toxicity, The cells in tissues treated with ACSF+KCN+Ketamine showed normal appearance of cell body and axonal projections, the cells treated with ACSF+Ketamine showed fewer degenerating cells compared to those treated with cyanide.
Conclusion: Ketamine, an NMDA R1 antagonist is neuroprotective against the toxicity of cyanide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Content of a Waste Engine Oil Polluted Soil Exposed to pH Adjustments

B. Ikhajiagbe, G. O. Anoliefo, E. O. Oshomoh, Uwaila A. Ogedegbe, Nosakhare Airhienbuwa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 66-82

The present study investigated the role of pH adjustments in the remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents of waste engine oil-polluted soil. Sun-dried top soil (0-10cm) was measured into buckets. Waste engine oil (WEO) was added to soil and mixed thoroughly to obtain similar concentrations of 2.5% w/w oil in soil. The polluted soil was thereafter amended with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer to enhance microbial activity. The buckets were transferred into a well ventilated screen house with inherent constant room temperature. The entire setup was divided into 5 sets. Each set was irrigated daily with 200ml of different pH solutions (pH 3, 5, 7, and 11) for a period of 3 months. There were reductions in total PAH concentrations. Total polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of soil was lowest when soil was modified with solutions of pH 5 (78.1 mg/kg) followed by that at pH 9 (90.6 mg/kg), pH 3 (213.5 mg/kg) and pH 11(315.1 mg/kg). Obviously, successful remediation of PAH is pH dependent. Fluorene was totally remediated at pH value from acidity to neutrality; whereas at alkalinity, fluorene content was 0.237 mg/kg and 0.139 mg/kg at pH 7 and 11 respectively.