Aims: To observe the morphology of the larva of A. aegypti in detail and to evaluate their morphometry. Place and Duration of Study: Place – St. John’s College, Agra. Duration – June, 2011 to May, 2012. Methodology: Morphology of larval head, antennae, compound eyes, median brush (palatum), lateral brush; neck; thorax; abdomen, comb spine, siphon, siphon teeth and anal papillae were observed and photographed under an image documentation system and their size (length/width) measured by using image J software for morphometric study. Dyar’s rule was also applied to see the increase in width of head, neck, thorax and abdomen of A. aegypti larvae. Results: Morphology and morphometry of various instars of Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) larvae collected from Agra city were studied. Larval key characters of head, antenna, compound eye, palatum, lateral brush, neck, thorax, abdomen, comb spine, siphon, pecten teeth and anal papilla are studied by morphometry. The head capsule grows in size (length/width) to attain globular shape. The width of head, neck, thorax and abdomen were measured and the Dyar’s rule was applied to find out the growth rate. The width of the head doesn’t follow the Dyar’s rule. The factors between I-II, II-III and III-IV larval instars increase by a constant factor. The increase in size of antennae, compound eye, median and lateral brush of larvae in every instar of larval development were observed. In A. aegypti larvae the size of the neck, thorax and abdomen were also studied. The number of comb spine varied from 4.4 -10.6 from I-IV instar. The mode in I instar stage is 4 and from II-IV instar is 10. In the respiratory siphon of A. aegypti larvae the ratio of its length and width measure approximately less than the double of its width. The number of pecten teeth and their length increase in each instar. Four anal papillae increase in length and width during larval development. Conclusion: This study reveals the morphologic features of A. aegypti larvae in Agra for better understanding of the key characters.
An extensive search for larvae was carried out in the lowland Caribbean side of Costa Rica in 2006 and 2007 to find valuable taxonomic information concerning Mimoides swallowtails. Females of Mimoides pausanias prasinus were observed laying eggs on a tree of Annona amazonica R. E. Fr. and Mimoides euryleon clusoculis on a tree of Rollinia pittieri Saff. The live material was reared at the Insect Museum of the University of Costa Rica on their respective host-plant. Both species share very similar color patterns on larvae and pupal shape. M. pausanias lasted 48 days from egg oviposition to adult emerging while M. euryleon lasted 51 days.
Aims: The study was designed to explore the floristic composition and biological characteristics. Place and Duration of Study: A record of plant species of Sheikh Maltoon Town Mardan was organized during 2008 – 2009. Methodology: A record of plant species was organized on the source of field trips conducted in winter, summer and monsoon, and identified with available literature. The plants were classified into different life form and leaf size classes after standard methods. Results: The flora consisted of 91 plant species belonging to 76 genera and 38 families. Asteraceae, Poaceae and Cucurbitaceae are the dominant families of the floristic composition of research area. The biological spectrum explains that therophytes (52 spp., 57.14%), magaphanerophytes (11 spp., 12.09%) were the dominant followed by hemicryptophytes (9 spp., 9.89%), chamaephytes (8 spp., 8.79%), nanophanerophytes (6 spp., 6.59%), geophytes (4 spp., 4.39%) and parasite (1 spp., 1.1%). Leaf spectra of plants consisted of microphylls (46.2%), mesophylls (25.3%), nanophylls (13.2%), leptophylls (9.59%) and megaphylls (5.49%). Conclusion: Analysis of the present work reveals the phytoclimate to be of therophytic type. The domination of therophytes indicates that the investigated area is under deep biotic stress.
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is under active investigation as a potential viral vector for gene therapy. Modifications to the virus are necessary to make HSV-1 safe for potential therapeutic use in humans. The genome of herpes simplex virus type-1 is extremely rich in GC content (>68%), presenting significant challenges from a technical standpoint. The additional hydrogen bonds presented by increased GC base pairs makes DNA strand separation and polymerase chain reaction amplification more difficult. Various DNA polymerases are commercially available, but their results can be variable. We modified the protocols of a commercially available G-C Rich Polymerase System to enhance its efficacy by adding extra steps to improve dissociation of strands of herpes virus DNA and to improve annealing of primers prior to performing PCR. We describe here the protocol modifications that improve the efficacy of amplification of GC-rich sequences of herpes virus DNA. These modifications will help researchers reduce laboratory costs and time associated with working with forms of DNA that are particularly high in GC content. Improving efficacy of HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction will make production of rationally-designed genetically-engineered forms of the virus more technically feasible.
Aim: To study the morphology and morphometry of Aedes aegypti mosquito. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of St. John’s College, Agra. From June, 2011 to May, 2012. Methodology: 20 male and 20 female adult Aedes aegypti were taken for the study. Head, clypeus, vertex, antenna, maxillary palp, thorax, wings, legs and abdomen were studied. The type of scales, their morphology, bands and patches were observed. Morphometric study was done using Image J software. Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. Results: The clypeus of female has two silvery white dots whereas, male had no dots. The vertex of male and female has silvery white flat scales. The size of head, proboscis, maxillary palp, antenna, thorax, its lyre marking and median longitudinal lines were measured. The scales and bristles of thoracic regions were observed. The wing membrane has no white scales. It bears specific venation which had flat scales. The size of the wing, legs, abdomen were measured and their scales were observed. The claws of fore, mid and hind legs varied in male and female Ae. aegypti. Conclusion: This study revealed the morphologic features of Ae. aegypti adult in Agra for better understanding of the key characters.