A feeding experiment was conducted on larvae of blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus to evaluate the effect of two different live feed on growth and survival rate of the fish. Larval were fed thrice a day with Asian star feed powder and twice a day (morning and evening) with either Artemia or fairy shrimp nauplii as a supplementary feed for 45 days. Tests were run in triplicate and initial and final weights were recorded for all the treatments. Results indicated that the length and weight of fish fed with fairy shrimp nauplii was significantly (P<0.01) higher than those fed with Artemia nauplii. No significant differences (P>0.05) in specific growth rate was found between the two experimental diets. The mean of condition factor also showed higher CF value for fish fed with fairy shrimp. The survival of the fish was not affected by the dietary treatments.
Aims: To determine the effect of different levels of esterified glucomannan (EG) on detoxification and carryover of aflatoxin (AF) from feed to milk in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Study Design: The experiment was designed as a randomized block with twelve cows allocated to each treatment group. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science, Faroogh Life Sciences Research Laboratory, between July 2011 and August 2012. Methodology: Forty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were individually fed a similar based ration and randomly allocated to one of four levels of EG as the experimental treatments (0, 18, 27 and 36 g/cow daily of EG, named EG-0, EG-18, EG-27 and EG-36, respectively). Milk samples were collected on d 20 and 21 of experimental period to evaluate changes in milk AF concentration, milk AF secretion (milk AF concentration × milk yield); and AF transfer from feed to milk (AF secretion as a percentage of AF intake). Results: Feed intake and milk production were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05) and averaged 22.08 kg and 37.57 kg/d, respectively. Milk composition was also not affected (P>0.05) by addition of EG in the diet. Inclusion of EG to the diet was not effective in reducing milk aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations (P>0.05) and averaged 35, 40, 51 and 38 ng/kg for the EG-0, EG-18, EG-27 and EG-36, respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the dietary treatments regarding AFM1 excretion and transfer of AF from feed to milk. Transfer of AF from feed to milk averaged 1.3, 1.47, 1.86 and 1.24% for the EG-0, EG-18, EG-27 and EG-36 treatments, respectively. Conclusion: Inclusion of EG up to 36 g/d (3 time more than recommended dosage) was not effective in reducing AFM1 concentrations, AF excretion, or AF transfer from feed to milk.
In order to investigate the effect of some of micronutrients application on micronutrient distribution, partitioning, and their ratio in different parts of soybean plant; we conducted an experiment in field conditions at Kermanshah, Iran, 2010 and 2011. Three levels of zinc (0, 20, 40 kg.ha-1 from ZnSo4 source); iron (0, 25, 50 kg.ha-1 from FeSo4 source) and manganese (0, 25, 40 kg.ha-1 from MnSo4 source) were applied. Based on results, it was found that Zn and Mn concentrations increased within the plant with micronutrient fertilizers application. The highest Zn concentration was observed in pod, but Maximum Fe and Mn concentrations recorded in leaves. With increases in soybean old and reach to full maturity stage, the Zn, Fe, and Mn content in tissue plant were decreased. The results indicated that with Zn application [Zn]/[Fe] and [Zn]/[Mn] ratios in seed increased. With Fe fertilizer application [Zn]/[Fe] ratio was decreased, but had no effect on [Zn]/[Mn] ratio.
Identification of protein-protein interaction (PPI) sites is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and many computational methods based on support vector machines have been developed. However, current methods often fail to predict PPI sites mainly becauseã€€of the severe imbalance between the numbers of interface and non-interface residues. In this study,ã€€we propose a novel over-sampling method thatã€€relaxesã€€the class-imbalance problem based on local density distributions.ã€€We applied the proposed method toã€€a PPI dataset that includes 2,829 interface and 24,616 non-interface residues. The experimental result showed aã€€significant improvement in predictive performanceã€€comparing with the other state-of-the-art methods according to the six evaluation measures.
The present study investigated the effects of soil watering regimes on the intrinsic qualities of bioremediation of a waste engine oil-polluted soil. Five (5) kg of sun-dried top-soil was each placed into large perforated bowls and mixed thoroughly with waste engine oil (WEO) to obtain similar concentrations of 2.5% w/w oil in soil. The polluted soil was thereafter amended with 4g NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer to enhance microbial activity. Having previously determined the soil’s water holding capacity to be 215 ml/kg soil, the entire setup was divided into 6 sets according to watering regimes. One set was irrigated with 1000 ml distilled water only once a week (1PW); the other sets were irrigated twice in a week (2PW), once a month (1PM), and the other twice a month (2PM). One set was deprived of moisture throughout the duration of the study (NWT), while the control experiment was carefully irrigated daily to saturation (CTRL). The entire experimental set up was left for three months in a well ventilated screen house with inherent room temperature range (28 – 30ºC). Results of the present study showed reductions in heavy metal contents, but in differing degrees. One week after pollution (WAP) concentration of Fe was 1097.34 mg/kg, Mg was 18.4mg/kg, Cu was 5.63 mg/kg and Ni was 2.95 mg/kg. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) was 3425.63mg/kg. However, 3 months later when polluted soil was subjected to varying soil watering regimes, Fe in soil was 875.43mg/kg, Cu was 3.83 mg/kg and THC was 1095.54mg/kg respectively in the control, compared to values for Fe (687.3 mg/kg), Cu (3.83 mg/kg) and THC (445.45 mg/kg) respectively, when soil was wetted once a week. The contamination factor (CF) values presented for Fe, Mg, Cu, and Ni were all less than unity (CF < 1) an indication, that these heavy metals were remediated to levels below when soil was not yet exogenously polluted. There were reductions in polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents of the soil. At one WAP total PAH was 923.90mg/kg as against 458.59 mg/kg 3 months later. When soil was wetted once a week, total PAH was 85.98mg/kg, 104.89 mg/kg when irrigated twice a week, 170.74 mg/kg when irrigated twice a month and 302.60mg/kg when soil receive no wetting at all. Comparatively total concentration of PAH was lowest at 1PW. Bacterial isolates of the oil polluted soil subjected to watering treatment once a week were Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp., and Serratia marcescens, whereas fungal species included Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma sp.
Aims: The aim is to study the effects of seed priming on germination and yield of Fennel in laboratory experiments and pot studies. Study Design: The method used is CRD (Completely Randomized Design) with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were carried out at the Research Station of the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, northwestern Iran at June 2012. The climate of the research site is semiarid and cold with an average annual precipitation of 270 mm. The soil was sandy-loam with an electrical conductivity of 0.72 dS m–1, pH of 7.74. Methodology: The treatments are gibberellic acid (GA3) with dosage of 500p.p.m, hydro-priming (HP) with 24 hours duration, nitrate potassium (KNO3) 3% and control that was performed on Fennel seeds. Then in laboratory with use of special paper and pure water the seeds were cultured in Petri-dishes and were putt in germinator with 190C temperature for 8 days and were counted daily. Some parts of primed seeds were stored in normal condition for 6 months and were cultured in laboratory condition. All the primed seeds were farmed in pots. Three months later the plants were harvested in first blooming level and dry weight and essential oil percentage were measured. Result: The results of laboratory study showed that the influence of various treatments on germination percentage was significant. KNO3 showed the highest positive effect on germination percentage ( 87.83%). The seedling length and weight in KNO3 and GA3 treatments were the highest in comparision with other ones. The effect of different treatments on essential oil percentage was significant. KNO3 with (3.55%) and GA3 with (3.36%) had the most positive effect on essential oil percentage. But the effect of different treatments on dry weight was not significant.