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Open Access Case study

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting as Pyrexia of Unknown Origin: A Case Report

Surendra Khosya, Sunil Kumar Gothwal, Nilesh Gharpure

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 226-231

Vitamin B12 deficiency is an uncommon cause of fever. Here we describe a case of a 16-year-old male who presented with pyrexia of unknown origin from one and half month subsequently on investigation patient diagnosed to nutritional megaloblastic anemia secondary to severe vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic or inflammatory causes. Megaloblastic anemia (vitamin B12, folate deficiency) is a reversible cause of pyrexia that should be considered in any patient who presents with pyrexia from long time and pancytopenia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Life Classification in Summer of Tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati, District Karak, Khyber Pakhtun Khawa, Pakistan

Musharaf Khan, Farrukh Hussain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 176-187

Aims: The study was designed to explore the floristic composition and vegetation classification.
Place and Duration of Study: A survey of natural vegetation of Tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati, District Karak was undertaken in summer 2010-2011. The study was conducted within four distinct stands further divided into 22 sites for clear communities’ segregation.
Methodology: Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) were used for the plant community analysis. Plant species of each community type are presented together with the information on dominance and sub dominance species.
Results: Five plant association i.e. Cenchrus-Saccharum-Prosopis association, Cenchrus-Eragrostis-Calligonum association, Zizyphus-Cenchrus-Eragrostis association, Rhazya-Fagonia-Cymbopogon association and Aerua-Boerhavia-Zizyphus association were recognized and 46 species were recorded.
Conclusion: Classification and ordination techniques provided very similar results based on the floristic composition and communities similarity. The results produced the source for the mapping division of plant life communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Oral and Dermal Sub-Chronic Exposure of Kerosene on Biochemical Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

Ayobola A. Iyanda

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 188-194

Aim: Many of the studies that have been carried out to investigate the toxicity of kerosene have been large-dose, acute-setting experiments. Although the hepatic and renal damage as a result of kerosene exposure has been demonstrated in an earlier study in female Wistar rats, gender is known to play a role in an animal’s response to a xenobiotic. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of repeated exposure of trace amount of kerosene to male Wistar rats so as to establish if differences in gender of an animal will modulate the toxic response of kerosene in sub-chronic setting.
Methods: Twelve male rats were divided equally into 2 groups and administered with 0.4 ml/kg kerosene either through the oral or dermal route; six other rats served as control group. Kerosene administration lasted for 21 days after which blood was obtained through retro-orbital bleeding.
Results: Results of the study reveal that while the hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) as well as other biochemical parameters- bilirubin, urea, creatinine and uric acid were significantly increased, total protein and albumin were significantly reduced (p<0.05). Moreover, in most cases these changes were more significant for oral route than dermal route.
Conclusion: These results suggest nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic nature of kerosene in male rats and confirm that the oral route of administration is more dangerous than dermal, a finding that was similar to what was observed for female rats in an earlier study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selenium Priming Selectively Ameliorates Weed – Induced Phytotoxicity by Modulating Antioxidant Defense Components in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.)

Dibyendu Talukdar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 195-212

Aims: Present investigation was performed to assess the phytotoxic effect of weed, Ageratum conyzoides L. on two pulses, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and the ameliorative role of selenium (Se) to counter it.
Place and Duration of Study: Leaf samples of Ageratum were collected from the lentil-growing fields of Kalyani, West Bengal, India during winter of 2011-12. The lab-based works were performed at Department of Botany, R.P.M. College, West Bengal, India throughout the period of 2012.
Study Design: The study was carried out using four replicates treatment-1 in a completely randomized block design.
Methodology: Ageratum leaf aqueous extract of 200 mg ml-1 (w/v) was prepared and used on the two crops in (a) nutrient media, and (b) media + Se concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 µM separately. Also, Se was added alone (no extract) in nutrient media. A control (no exogenous Se, no extract) was maintained. The experiment was performed in an environmentally controlled growing chamber and plants were grown till flowering. Different morpho-physiological parameters along with root-tip mitosis and flower bud meiosis were studied at appropriate stages with standard methodology and analysed statistically.
Results: Leaf extract induced phytotoxicity through significant perturbation in ascorbate and glutathione redox and activities of SOD, APX, DHAR, GR, CAT and GPX, resulting in over-accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation product as the obvious marking of oxidative damage with more severe effect on lentil. Se-priming significantly ameliorated this situation at 20 and 40 µM in grass pea and at 40 µM in lentil by modulating antioxidant defense machinery in favor of growth. Se alone at 20 µM promoted growth of both crops but exhibited toxic effect on lentil at 40 µM. Phytotoxic effect of extract was also manifested by aberrant mitotis and meiosis in both plants.
Conclusion: Ageratum leaf extract triggered oxidative stress. Se-priming at selective concentration ameliorated extract-induced phytotoxicity in lentil and grass pea by modulating anti-oxidant defense components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Apparently Healthy Undergraduate Students in Uyo, South-South, Nigeria

O. J. Akinjogunla, O. Divine-Anthony

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 213-225

Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among apparently healthy undergraduate students in Uyo, South-South, Nigeria.
Methodology: Microscopic examination, bacteriological analysis and antibiotic susceptibility profile of the bacterial isolates from mid stream urine samples of apparently healthy undergraduate students were carried out using standard microbiological and disc diffusion methods. The presence of glucose, protein, ketone and nitrite were determined using dip sticks.
Results: Microscopical analysis showed that aged 21-25yrs had the highest number of epithelial cells; while the highest yeast cells 6 (21.4%) were obtained in aged 26-30yrs. Only 30 (26.8%) samples had pus cells, 10 (8.9%) crystal cells, 22 (21.4%) cast cells and 26 (23.2%) red blood cells. Of the 112 samples collected, 14 (12.5%), 9 (8.0%), 6 (5.4%) and 4 (3.6%) had glucose, protein, ketone and nitrite, respectively. Age ranged ≤ 20yrs and 21-25yrs had no ketone and nitrite, while highest occurrence of protein was obtained in aged 26-30yrs. Significant bacteriuria (SBU) ranged from 16 (28.6%) in males to 20 (35.7%) in females with highest SBU in age ranged 26-30yrs. The bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli 32 (25.0%), Staphylococcus aureus 26 (20.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 16 (12.5%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp 16 (12.5%), Streptococcus pyogenes 10 (7.8%), Serratia marcescens 10 (7.8%), Enterobacter sp 8 (6.3%), Klebsiella sp 6 (4.7%) and Enterococcus faecalis 4 (3.1%). Only 86 (67.2%), 90 (70.3%), 64 (50.0%) and 58 (45.3%) of the isolates were sensitive to Streptomycin, Ceftriaxone, Penicillin and Cotrimoxazole, respectively, while 20 (62.5%) of E. coli were sensitive to Streptomycin and Ceftazidime. S. aureus, S. marcescens, Enterobacter sp and E. faecalis were highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin.
Conclusion: inclusion of assessments of asymptomatic bacteriuria as parts of the medical examination for students’ especially new entrants, in tertiary institutions should be adopted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Maize-Pigeon Pea Intercrop to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Nutrient Depleted Soil

S. O. Dania, O. Fagbola, Margaret I. Dania

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 232-245

The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in nutrient recycling can result in the improvement of plant growth and yield in nutrient depleted soil. Two years field experiment (2008 and 2009) was conducted at Ekpoma, Nigeria to investigate the effects of mycorrhizal inoculum on maize-pigeon pea intercrop. The experiment was a 2 x 3 factorial fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Soil samples from the site were analysed for both chemical and physical properties. The land equivalent ratio was determined and data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at p = 0.05. In 2008, the height and stem girth of maize were increased with the inoculation of mycorrhiza. Maize had a higher grain yield of 1,866.8 kg ha-1 when inoculated with mycorrhiza compared to non mycorrhizal maize with grain yield of 1,406.8 kg ha-1. The grain yield was 48 % higher in mycorrhizal pigeon pea compared non-mycorrhizal pigeon pea for both the intercrop and the sole pigeon pea. The inoculation of mycorrhiza increased the shoot biomass of pigeon pea and maize. The residual effects of mycorrhizal inoculation on sole pigeon pea and maize results in higher grain yield of 2,581.4 kg ha-1 and 1,500.8 kg ha-1 respectively in 2009. The residual effects of Glomus clarum increased the grain yield by 41% and 56% in maize and pigeon pea respectively. The nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal maize and pigeon pea were higher compared to non mycorrhizal maize and pigeon pea. The land equivalent ratio was greater than one which indicated the advantage of intercrop over monoculture. Glomus clarum significantly improved their growth, shoot biomass, grain yield and nutrient uptake of maize and pigeon pea. Intercrop maize with or without mycorrhiza had higher yield in the residual experiment compared to monoculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Heat Treatment and Fermentation on Anti-Nutrients Content of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) During Production of Daddawa Analogue

H. A. Adeniran, E. O. Farinde, V. A. Obatolu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 256-266

Aim: To produce daddawa analogue (a fermented condiment) from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) seeds which should have safe levels of anti-nutrients comparable to daddawa from locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds.
Design of the Study: Lima bean and locust bean seeds were separately heat-processed and subjected to natural fermentation for 72 hours to produce daddawa analogue and daddawa respectively.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology and Central Science Laboratory, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between March 2010 and June 2011.
Methodology: The pH, titratable acidity, and the anti-nutrients (tannin, phytate, cyanide, trypsin inhibitor) of the fermenting samples were evaluated every 12 hours during fermentation.
Results: pH increased (P = .05) from 7.46 at 0 h to 8.50 after 72 h and from 7.50 at 0 h to 8.74 at 72 h of fermentation in lima bean and locust beans respectively. Titratable acidity decreased in the fermented lima beans from 0.216 at 0 h to 0.045 mg lactic acid/g at 72 h of fermentation. All anti-nutrients analyzed decreased with fermentation time. Tannin content decreased significantly (P = .05) from 19.0 ± 0.10 at 0 h to 2.0 ± 0.01mg/kg at 72 h and from 9.50 ± 0.02 at 0 h to 3.06 ± 0.01 mg/kg at 72 h of fermentation in lima beans and locust beans respectively. Fermentation significantly decreased phytate content (P = .05) from 22.0 ± 0.03 at 0 h to 7.0 ± 0.01mg/kg at 72 h in lima beans. Cyanide content decreased significantly (P = .05) from 0.97 ± 0.01 at 0 h to 0.25 ± 0.01mg/kg at 72 h and from 15.0 ± 0.05 at 0 h to 0.29 ± 0.10 mg/kg at 72 h of fermentation in lima beans and locust beans respectively. Trypsin inhibitor content also decreased significantly (P = .05) from 4.40 ± 0.10 at 0 h to 1.76 ± 0.02 mg/kg at 72 h and from 0.24 ± 0.0 at 0 h to 0.10 ± 0.1 TIU/g at 72 h of fermentation in lima beans and locust beans respectively.
Conclusion: The study has shown that daddawa analogue from lima beans was comparable to daddawa from locust beans in terms of anti-nutritional contents.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Legume and Non-Legume Green Manures Along with Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Some Traits of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as Subsequent Crop

Farzad Gerami, Amir Aynehband, Elnaz Taherifard

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 314-322

In order to evaluate the effects of green manures and various nitrogen fertilizer levels on some traits of wheat, a field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran, during the 2010-2011 growing season. The experimental design was split-plot, N levels (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) as main plots, and green manures (i.e. millet; GMMi, sesbania; GMS, amaranth; GMA, cowpea; GMC, mung bean; GMMb and control; NO-GM) as sub-plots with three replications. In this study some of the traits such as plant height, number of tillers in per plant and straw yield were investigated. According to the results, the main effect of N levels, green manures and interaction of treatment (N × GM) were significant effects on all traits. The highest plant height (95.67 cm), number of tillers in per plant (5.57) and straw yield (9.01 ton h-1) were obtained by using of 100, 100 and 150 kg N h-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest plant height (92.01 cm), number of tillers in per plant (5.03) and straw yield (8.88 ton h-1) were obtained as affected by GMMb, GMC and NO-GM (without green manure application), respectively. In this perspective, application of 100 to 150 Kg N h-1 and use of convenient legume crops as green manure especially GMMb and GMC can be useful to increase the studied wheat traits.

Open Access Review Article

Electronic Waste Components in Developing Countries: Harmless Substances or Potential Carcinogen

V. O. Akinseye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 131-147

The continuous increase in the scientific breakthroughs which has existed for some decades, has greatly contributed to the ease of human existence in all ramification. However, these sucesses are not without their short-comings. One of the major challenges faced, is the uncontrolled generation of used electronic appliances or gadgets, commomnly called electronic waste (e-waste), especially in the developing countries. E-waste generated from electrical and electronic equipments is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. In the developed countries, larger percentage of these e-wastes are recycled, thus reducing the potential health risk that could result from exposure to e-wastes. However, in the developing countries, there is little or no machinery in place for recycling and controlling e-wastes, probably because this part of the world are mainly consumers. Most of the e-waste are either used as landfills, disposed and left to decay naturally or burnt. Through these waste disposing practices, the components in the e-wastes either leach into underground water bodies or escape into the atmosphere. Most of these components are potent carcinogens, that pose a great health risk to aquatic lives and humans who are continually exposed to them, no wonder, Africa has been tagged “ hub of diseases”. There is an urgent need for a more efficient and robust e-waste disposal technology in the developing countries, so that the overwhelming challenges posed by the components of e-waste can be efficiently controlled.

Open Access Review Article

Essential Oils Isolated from Myrtaceae Family as Natural Insecticides

Asgar Ebadollahi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 148-175

An interest in natural products from plants has been increased due to the disruption of natural biological control systems, undesirable effects on non-target organisms, environmental hazards, and the development of resistance to synthetic insecticides, which are applied in order to reduce the populations of insects. Essential oils (EOs) from plants may be an alternative source of insect control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use in integrated management programs. These materials may be applied to food crops shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues. Furthermore, medically safe of these plant derivatives has emphasized also. For these reasons, much effort has been focused on plant EOs and their constituents as potential sources of insect control agents. In this context, Myrtaceae family would rank among the most important families of plants. In the last few years more and more studies on the insecticidal properties of EOs from Myrtaceae family have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile them. Therefore, the subject matter of this paper lies on the insecticidal effects of EOs from Myrtaceae and their compounds in insect pest's control. Natural essences of Myrtaceae plants owe its insecticidal action to the presence in its composition of terpenic derivatives such as 1.8-cineole, limonene, linalool, myrcene, terpineol, thymol and α-pinene, which have introduced as potential insecticides. These review indicated that pesticides based on Myrtaceae essential oils could be used in a variety of ways to control a large number of insect pests.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Biochemical Metabolites Concentration and Hormonal Composition of Ovarian Follicular Fluid in Domestic Animals

Nasroallah Moradi Kor, Kolsum Moradi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 246-255

Follicular fluid (FF) is an avascular compartment within the mammalian ovary separated from the perifollicular stroma by the follicular wall that constitutes a blood-follicle barrier. FF plays a major role in the autocrine and paracrine regulation and also in the physiological, biochemical and metabolic aspects of the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of the oocyte and the process of ovulation. This fluid is also composed of locally produced substances within the follicle, which are related to the metabolic activity of follicular cells, and it is also in part an exudate of serum. The ovarian FF provides suitable microenvironment for the development, growth and maturation of the oocyte and is vital for the maintenance of fertility in the female. FF protects the oocyte from factors that induce premature resumption of meiosis, guards the oocyte from proteolytic attack, facilitates its extrusion during ovulation, and enhances sperm attraction, motility, and the acrosome reaction.

Open Access Review Article

Coordinate Changes in Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction are Correlated to Salt Tolerance: Involvement of Phytohormones

Mehar Fatma, M. Iqbal R. Khan, Asim Masood, Nafees A. Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 267-295

Salt stress affected areas are increasing significantly all over the world leading to the adverse effects on plant growth and development and productivity of agricultural crops. For better suitability of plants with the changing environment, plants show well-defined metabolic alterations primarily in response to nutrient availability in the environment as an adaptive response. Thus, the management of salt stress is a function of nutritional status of the plant. The uptake and assimilation of sulfur plays a pivotal role in development and metabolic processes of plants and is an integral part of several important compounds, such as vitamins, co-enzymes, phytohormones and reduced sulfur compounds that decipher growth and vigour of plants under optimal and stressful environments. Assimilatory sulfate reduction may induce salt tolerance by coordinating various physiological processes and molecular mechanisms which are likely to be induced by phytohormones. The present review provides an update on physiological and molecular approaches associated with salt stress and details out how sulfur assimilation and phytohormones induce salt tolerance.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Fluoroquinolones

Sulochana Somasundaram, Kiruthika Manivannan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 296-313

The fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum bactericidal agents inhibiting DNA synthesis. They are active against gram positive and gram negative organisms like P. aeruginosa, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Staphylococci and a few of the Streptococci. They are useful in the treatment of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bacterial diarrhea, and skin and soft tissue infections. The use of quinolones began with its first generation that consisted of nalidixic acid. From that time, a large number of newer fluoroquinolones having a variety of structures and a broader spectrum of activity have been developed forming the five generations. The more number of fluoroquinolones developed and its widespread usage is attributed to its high bioavailability and tissue penetration. Moreover, the development of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics has led to the need for alternatives. The various derivatives of fluoroquinolone have varying levels of activity depending on the various groups attached at different positions. Generating a derivative with increased activity will help to reduce the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), thereby reducing the possibility of developing resistance to it. This paper gives an overview of fluoroquinolones, their mechanism of action, their uses, resistance development and their adverse effects.