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Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Wetlands in and around Tiruppur District, Tamil Nadu, India

P. Janaki Priya, K. Varunprasath

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41419

Wetlands are amongst the most productive ecosystem On the Earth [1,2], and provide many important services to human society. Wetlands are one of the most threatened habitats of the world. Wetlands in India, as elsewhere, are increasingly facing several anthropogenic pressures. Urbanization is the irreversible, and most dramatic, transformation of land affecting ecology and natural resources. This study was carried out to document the wetland status from June 2017 to March 2018 in and around Tiruppur district, TamilNadu. The study results demonstrated that there are 88 wetlands in and around Tiruppur districts and that they might be categorized in terms of dimension and state. Out of the 88 wetlands, 68% of the wetlands consist of land plots of less than 5 acres in size, followed by 26% of the wetlands consisting of 6-10 acres in size, 3% of the wetlands were approximately 11-15 acres in size while 3% of the wetlands were over 15 acres. According to the recorded usage of the wetlands, 42% were used for irrigation, 11% for irrigation and fisheries, 3% for recreational activities, and 44% for cattle cleaning, residential purposes including washing clothes, in the booming slums around the wetlands. For wastes dumped on wetlands, 2% were degradable wastes, 44% were non degradable wastes, and 54% were mixed wastes, including both degradable and non degradable waste. In Tiruppur town, 21% of the wetlands were enclosed by farm land, 8% were encircled by factories/companies, and 71% were surrounded by residential areas. During every summer season, 53% of the wetlands become dried out, 19% were partially dried up, and 28% of the wetlands retained their water holding capacity throughout the year. The results indicated that the decline of wetlands in and around Tiruppur district was due to waste dumping, construction near wetlands, lack of desilting and dredging, blocking of water channels, and the lack of strict laws. Apart from government regulation, creating wetland awareness, enlightened infrastructure development, sustainable water use planning, and implementation of zero discharge facilities practices are necessary in order to prevent the further deterioration on wetlands in Tiruppur district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Leaf Gas Exchange and Phytochemicals of Centella asiatica Exposed to Salinity Stress

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Nurul Izzati Shibli, Ayu Azera Izad, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41014

Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salinity by using a different concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl), on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and secondary metabolites production of Centella asiatica.

Study Design: Centella asiatica plants were exposed to four different concentration of sodium chloride (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM). This research was conducted using a randomized complete block design 4 x 3 with three replications for each treatment and each treatment consists of 12 plants regarding four times harvesting.

Place and Duration of Study: Glasshouse of SLAM field, University Agriculture Park, Universiti Putra Malaysia from February to April 2015.

Methodology: Salinity stress was induced by irrigating the plants using four salinity levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM) of salt concentrations for 12 weeks. The leaves number were counted manually and the total plant biomass was taken by calculating the dry weight of root, stem, and leaf per seedling. The total chlorophyll content in the leaves was measured using a SPAD chlorophyll meter. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured using Hansatech Pocket PEA, The leaf gas exchange were determined using a LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis system. Total phenolics and flavonoid was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Phytochemical screening was conducted to determine the presence of tannin, terpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, saponin, and alkaloids of plant samples under salinity stress.

Results: Increased in salinity levels from 0 > 150 mM, the number of leaves, total biomass and total chlorophyll content were gradually decreased. Centella asiatica exhibit a significant decrease in net photosynthesis (A), transpiration rate (E), maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm) and Performance index (PI) when the salinity level increased. However, it was noticed that salinity stress significantly enhanced the total phenolic and flavanoid content of C. asiatica. It was also observed, that under salinity there were more presence of phytochemicals (tannin, terpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, saponin and alkaloids) compared to the control.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the increase in salinity level have greatly reduced the growth of C. asiatica but high salinity level also can enhance the production of secondary metabolites (total phenolic and flavonoid content) in C. asiatica.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Day and Night Temperatures on the Growth and Physiology of Theobroma cacao under Controlled Environment Condition

Tuan Syaripah Najihah, Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Paul Hadley, Andrew Daymond

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40413

Aims: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a wide range of temperatures on the growth and physiology of Theobroma cacao, to study the differences between night and day temperatures and to determine the optimum temperature for the cocoa growth.

Study Design: The experiment used five combinations of night and day temperatures (18°C and 30°C [18N30N], 18°C and 36°C; [18N 36D], 24°C and 24°C [24N24D], 24°C and 30°C [24N30D] and 24°C and 36°C [24N36D]) using complete randomized design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Crops and Environment Laboratory University of Reading and International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, between 23rd May 2016 and 25th July 2016.

Methodology: The cocoa seedlings were put into five growth cabinets with five different night and day temperatures combinations (18°C and 30°C, 18°C and 36°C, 24°C and 24°C, 24°C and 30°C, 24°C and 36°C) for two months (63 days) under controlled environment condition where the relative humidity and vapor pressure deficit were controlled. Destructive harvest data was taken at end of the experiment which included fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area and root weight. Non-destructive measurements were height of the plant, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and total chlorophyll content.

Results: Treatment 24N30D have the best growth and treatment 24N36D had the lowest growth performances compared to other treatments.

Conclusion: The growth was not only dependent on the day temperature, but also on the night temperature. A large gap between night and day temperatures (DIF) reduced the cocoa growth. The result also showed the optimum temperature amongst those studied for cocoa growth is the combination of 24°C night temperature and 30°C day temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in Cocoa Fermentation of Six Main Cocoa Producing Regions of Côte d’ivoire

Evelyne C. Adiko, Hadja D. Ouattara, Ginette G. Doué, Sébastien L. Niamké

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42194

Aims: The variability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species involved in cocoa bean fermentation would cause inconsistency in the quality of cocoa. The aims of this study is to investigate the physicochemical parameters of cocoa bean fermentation in order to assess the activity and the molecular diversity of LAB involved in cocoa fermentation from six other regions of Côte d’Ivoire.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouet-Boigny (Côte d’Ivoire), between October 2016 and September 2017.

Methodology: Spontaneous heap fermentations were conducted in six cocoa producing regions during 6 days. Physicochemical analysis of cocoa mass such as temperature, pH, titratable acidity and reducing sugars were carried out. In addition, LAB isolation was performed using plate culture on MRS medium and their fermentative type as well as their profile were determined. In addition, LAB species were determined by restriction profile analysis of the 16S gene.

Results: a total of 568 LAB were isolated from cocoa fermentation. Biochemical and morphological identification of these germs revealed the clear dominance of the bacilli form (81.16%) and the heterofermentative type (over 80%) with facultative heterofermentative type recording more than half (54.4%) of the isolated population. Their molecular identification by sequencing the hypervariable zone of the 16S rDNA gene of a few representatives from each restriction group revealed 08 species with a predominance of Lactobacillus plantarum (76.76%) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (15.31%) associated with minority species. This species diversity could be exploited for selecting appropriate starter cultures.

Conclusion: This diversity of LAB species could be responsible for the variability of cocoa quality in Côte d’Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Taxonomic Studies on the Tribe- Archipini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Kashmir Himalaya, India

Mushtaq Ganai, Zakir Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41606

Aims: Taxonomy refers to assignment of name to an organism which provides the only key to all the information available about that species and its relatives. Careful and accurate identification and classification of organisms are of vital importance so that the extents of their harmful and beneficial properties are established. Since some of the members of tribe Archipini are pests of various crops, so this study was conducted with the aim to identify, describe, name and classify these species and also prepare illustrated diagnostic keys for their quick and authentic identification and efficient management.

Study Design: Taxonomy of tribe Archipini.

Place and Duration of Study: The collection of these tortricid moth specimens  was done in districts Anantnag, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kargil and Leh of J&K State during 2010-2012, while as their processing was performed during 2014 in Biosystematics Laboratory, Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar- 190 025.

Methodology: For this study, intensive and extensive collection-cum-survey tours were conducted to capture tortricid moth species from far-flung localities of different areas of Kashmir and Ladakh from March 2010 to November 2012. Since these moths being nocturnal in behaviour, their collection was done during night with the help of portable bucket type light traps fitted with 125 W mercury vapour lamp and mercury vapour lamp hung along a white cloth sheet secured to a wall or directly over a plain white wall to protect wings and scales from damage due to overcrowding during trapping in bucket of light trap. These specimens after collection from field were processed in laboratory. For preparation of permanent slides for wing venation, method proposed by Common (1970) and advocated by Zimmerman (1978) was followed, while as for studying male and female genitalia, the method suggested by Robinson (1976) was followed with slight modification.

Results: Twelve Tortricid moth species belonging to six genera viz., Choristoneura Lederer, Archips Hubner, Pandemis Hubner, Clepsis Guenee, Neocalyptis Diakonoff and Homona Walker of tribe Archipini and sub-family Tortricinae were collected from Kashmir Himalaya and dealt with taxonomically. Overall, two species viz., Choristoneura pseudofumiferana   and Clepsis kupwari are being reported as new to science. Besides, giving an illustrated account of new species, the taxonomic account of already known species has also been added to improve their diagnosis. Further, key to the presently examined species of all genera has been prepared on the basis of characters such as labial palpi, antennae, costal fold, anal fold, wing venation and male and female genitalic characteristics.

Conclusion: In the Kashmir and Ladakh Himalayan region (North-west) of J & K state of India twelve species belonging to six genera viz., Choristoneura Lederer, Archips Hubner, Pandemis Hubner, Clepsis Guenee, Neocalyptis Diakonoff and Homona Walker of tribe Archipini have been collected during present investigation, out of which two species viz., Choristoneura pseudofumiferana   and Clepsis kupwari are being reported as new to science. Further the reporting of two new species increased the number of species under genus Choristoneura Lederer from four to five and genus Clepsis Guenee from two to three in Kashmir zone of Jammu & Kashmir.