Open Access Minireview Article

An Objective Analysis of Factors Affecting Buck Semen Quality Attributes during Cryopreservation: A Mini Review

D. J. Agossou, N. Koluman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42087

This paper aims to update recent findings related to the potential factors affecting the quality of buck semen during cryopreservation process. This paper describes cryopreservation of buck semen and it identifies different factors limiting the successful use of this technique in goats. Recently, several assisted reproductive technologies have been developed to control and to improve reproductive characteristics and productivity in goats. Semen cryopreservation is one of the most commonly used assisted reproductive technologies. This reproductive method allows an accelerated production of genetically valuable offspring. It is affected by various factors limiting its successful application. The handling practices prior to freezing, the composition of extenders, temperature and the length of storage have considerable effects on reproductive outcomes reducing the quantity and quality of spermatozoa. Furthermore, extensive investigations are needed to clearly assess the mechanisms between the temperature, and generation of reactive oxygen species during cryopreservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage in Poultry Farmers and Poultry Slaughterers in Ouarzazate - Morocco

A. Chaiba, F. Rhazi Filali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41629

Aim: The aim of this study were to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of  S. aureus and MRSA among moroccan farmers and slaughterers of poultry, to determine the risk factors associated with this carriage and to evaluate susceptibility of isolated strains to antibiotics.

Methodology: Poultry farmers and slaughterers from Oarzazate-Morocco were selected for nasal swabs collection with information on potential risk factors for S. aureus colonization. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of this pathogen were performed according to the conventional methods of bacteriology.

Results: Nasal swabs from 52 poultry workers enabled isolation of 25 (48.07%) S. aureus strains among which 8 (15.38%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Risk factors analysis revealed that seniority in the profession and livestock /slaughterhouse duration increased risk of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage. Isolated strains presented high rates of resistance to antibiotics, particularly to Penicillin, Tetracycline and Erythromycin. However, all of them were still susceptible to vancomycin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prognostic use of Prostate Specific Antigen, Some Renal Indices and Uric Acid in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Renal Impairment at Urology Clinic Federal Medical Centre Lokoja, Nigeria

Isaac Paul Emeje, Nkiruka Rose Ukibe, Nwakasi K. Nnamah, Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe, Solomon Nwabueze Ukibe, Emmanuel Ikechukwu Onwubuya, Obiageli Fidelia Emelumadu, Ifeoma Nwamaka Monago, Friday Alfred Ehiaghe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42389

Aims: Improved diagnosis of prostate cancer has led to increasing life expectancy in adult men. The use of PSA as the current practice for screening and treatment has become a key prognostic factor in the management of PCa. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic use of serum PSA, creatinine, urea, protein and uric acid in PCa subjects with or without renal impairment.

Study Design: The study was a prospective study conducted between March and September 2016 at federal Medical Centre Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Methods: One hundred and ten adult men aged 51 - 70 years were conveniently recruited for the study. Diagnosis was based on biopsy, PSA, Cr/U and UA results obtained, and grouped as (A) PCa subjects with RI (35), (B) PCa subjects without RI (35) and 40 apparently healthy men (Controls) which is regarded as group (C). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for PSA and renal indices using ELISA and colorimetric methods respectively.

Results: The result showed that serum tPSA, fPSA, cPSA, %fPSA, creatinine, urea and uric acid were significantly higher while total protein was significantly lower in PCa subjects with RI compared with controls (P<.05). Similar results were obtained in PCa without RI compared with controls except for urea (P=.001respectively). However, tPSA, fPSA, cPSA were significantly lower while creatinine, urea and uric acid were significantly higher in Pca with RI compared with the corresponding values in PCa without RI (P<.05). The correlation between cPSA, creatinine and urea showed association between PCa and RI. ROC showed that tPSA and cPSA had significantly higher diagnostic performance than fPSA and % fPSA in the prediction of PCa associated with RI while Creatinine, urea and uric acid had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of RI associated with PCa within the age range of 50-61 than 61-70 years.

Conclusions: Increased serum uric acid level observed in RI subjects suggests decreased excretion of uric acid by the kidney. ROC analysis shows significant evidence that tPSA and cPSA have higher predictive value for PCa with or without RI while creatinine, urea and uric acid have higher predictive efficacy for RI in PCa subjects. Adult men from 50 years are recommended for early screening for PDs to minimize progression to RI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Adhesion of Salmonella Muenster, Salmonella Kentucky, Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Kiel: Effect of Ionic Strength on Physicochemical Surface Properties

K. Elfazazi, H. Zahir, S. Tankiouine, C. Zanane, M. Ellouali, H. Latrache

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42502

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of adhesion of different Salmonella’s serovars (S. Newport, S. Muenster, S. Kentucky and S. Kiel) isolated from food surfaces under two ionic strengths (0.1M; 0.001M), in order to understand the influence of environmental characteristics on their adhesion behaviour.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of bioprocesses and biointerfaces; Sciences and technologies Faculty (FST) between February 2015 and July 2015.

Methodology: Physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, electron donor- electron acceptor) of cells surfaces and substratum surface were determined using contact angle method. The adhesion of Salmonellastrains on glass was studied using optical microscope and Matlab program.

Results: Salmonella strains showed similar cell surface physicochemical properties under low and high ionic strength except for S. Newport and S. Kentucky at low ionic strength. In addition, all Salmonella strains presented strong adhesion ability at low ionic strength (0,001M) especially for S. Newport and S. Kentuckyserovars.

Conclusion: The results presented in this work could contribute to understand and control the microbial adhesion of Salmonella serovars to inert surface depending on environmental conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photoprotection Comprising Oil Derived from Dromedary Camel Hump Fat

Sabah A. A. Jassim, Atheer A. Aldoori, Moutaz A. AbdulMounam, Basil R. Faraj, Farqad F. AbdulHameed, Richard G. Limoges

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42132

Aims: Camelus dromedarius (dromedary or one-humped camels) are known to endure harsh conditions including extreme temperatures and high solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in desert wilderness areas. This remarkable survival in the harsh desert conditions is attributed to distinctive bodily features enabling them to cope with this toxic environment. The present study hypothesized that the oil rendered from camel hump fat, consisting of saturated fatty acids with omega 3, 6, 9 and Vitamin E, has contributed to shield/protect/prevent UVA radiation damage.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Iraq, between June 2011 and July 2012.

Methodology: White BALB/c mice aged about 3 - 4 months weighing 24 - 31 gm were divided into four groups. Mice were shaved and three groups received different treatments of daily exposure to UVA radiation and one group was untreated as a control.

Results: Histopathological examinations of mice treated with camel oil prior to or following UVA radiation demonstrated that the camel oil acts as a protective agent, namely, protection of mice skin tissue from radiation-induced apoptosis. The mice treated with oil derived from cows and fat-tailed sheep demonstrated no improvement or worse results than untreated (control) mice. The results suggest that the camel oil protects the mice from UVA radiation injury and also acts as an injury-mitigator when applied following UVA exposure.

Conclusions: The major components in the camel hump fat including saturated fatty acids and noticeable values of omega 3, 6, 9 and Vitamin E have contributed to shield/protect/prevent UVA radiation damage, and may also have unique anti-tumor properties with novel dual radiation-protection and mitigation/healing properties.