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Open Access Short Research Article

Impacts of Elevated CO2 on Growth, Carbohydrate Assimilation and Nutrient Uptake of Elaeis guineesis Jacq Seedlings

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Rosimah Nulit, Puteri Edorayati Megat Wahab, Tuan Sharipah Najihah, Afifah Razak, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42001

Aims: This study was conducted to characterize the growth patterns of tenera oil palm seedlings performance (Deli AVROS) under elevated CO2, that is expected to increase in the future due to climate change.

Study Design: The palms were exposed to three carbon enrichment treatments: (1) ambient CO2 (400 ppm); (2) twice ambient CO2 (800 ppm), and (3) thrice ambient CO(1200 ppm). Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was used during the experiment using Deli AVROS seedlings.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science Universiti Putra Malaysia from March 2017 to December 2017.

Methodology: Carbon dioxide enrichment treatments started when seedlings reached three months old by exposing them to three levels of CO2, i.e., ambient CO2 (400 ppm), twice ambient CO2 (800 ppm) and thrice ambient CO2 (1,200 ppm). Growth, carbohydrate and macronutrients properties were measured at the end of the treatment period of 3 months.

Results: It was found that CO2 had the greatest influence on the growth over the three months’ period of experiment. As the level of CO2 increased, from 400>800>1200 ppm, the plant height, number of frond per plant, basal diameter, leaf area per seedling, root biomass, total dry matter, net assimilation rate (NAR) and relative growth rate (RGR) was  significant increased between the CO2 levels. The enhanced plant growth under elevated CO2 might be contributed by increased in production of total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) of the palm under elevated CO2. The increased in TNC exposed to elevated CO2 was supported by increase in sucrose and starch content under these conditions. More sucrose was available than starch indicate that no feedback inhibition was occurred and the palm have enough sink strength to cope with elevated CO2. The macronutrients contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) also was found to be reduced under elevated CO2 treatments, indicated that growth enhancement under elevated have dilute the nutrient content in the palms.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the growth of oil palm seedlings was enhanced with elevated CO2 at double and triple concentration than the ambient. It was found that the increase might be due to increase in production of total non-structural carbohydrate. The enhanced growth also increased the macronutrient demands under the elevated levels of CO2. This show in future the palm needs more fertilizers with enhanced levels of elevated CO2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Vitamin E Administration on Certain Biochemical and Antioxidants Indices in Some Rat Tissues Treated with Aluminium Chloride

O. T. Adedosu, G. E. Adeleke, T. A. Alao, N. E. Ojugo, O. E. Akinsoji

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42582

Aims:   It has been shown that aluminium and its compounds accumulate in some tissues causing metabolic dysfunctions. This study investigated the effects of vitamin E administration on certain biochemical and antioxidants indices in rat tissues treated with aluminium chloride (AlCl3). 

Study Design: Twenty four male Wistar rats with average weight of 160 g were randomly selected into four groups and treated as follows; group A(distilled water), group B (vitamin E only,100 mg/kg. bw/day), group C (AlClonly,40 mg/kg. bw/day) and group D (vitamin E  and AlCl3), all administered orally in 0.2 ml solution for 21 days.

Methodology: Biochemical and antioxidant indices were evaluated using standard methods.

Results: Results showed that treatment with  AlCl only (group C) caused significant (P=.05) decreases in Red Blood Cell (WBC) count, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), serum total protein  and High  Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol ( HDL-C) with increases in White Blood Cell (WBC) count, triglyceride and total cholesterol.  It also elicits significant (P=.05) increases in some liver and kidney indices such as Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, serum urea and creatinine concentrations. Analysis of antioxidant indices of the liver, kidney, brain and testis also revealed decreases in activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Reduced Glutathione (GSH) concentration with corresponding significant (P=.05) increases in Malondialdehyde (MDA) level by AlCladministration. In contrast, treatment with vitamin E and   AlCl3   (group D) showed improved in metabolic alterations observed in AlCl intoxication  as these indices were reversed with greater effects observed in group B.

Conclusion: Results obtained are indication of antioxidative and   tissue   protective effects of vitamin E against dyslipidemia and   heamatological disorder induced by (AlCl3).

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Cellulolytic Potential of Cellulase Producing Bacteria

Prashant Katiyar, S. K. Srivastava, V. K. Tyagi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/34410

The bioconversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to soluble sugars is important for global stabilization and for a sustainable human society. Here, hundreds of cellulolytic bacteria were found in soil, compost and animal waste slurry of our environment. 

Bacillus spp. are aerobic cellulolytic bacteria. Here, two Bacillus strains 2414, 2579 (T) and their mixed culture utilized for measuring the cellulolytic potential.

The capability of cellulolytic potential was analyzed by enriching the basal salt media with Whatman no.1 filter paper as a substrate for cellulose degradation. Here, Cellulose-degrading potential of Bacillus strains was measured by measuring the diameter of a clear zone around the colony and its hydrolytic value on cellulose Congo-Red agar media.

The extracellular cellulase activities ranged from 0.08233 to 0.44 IU/mL for FPase and 0.243 to 0.595 IU/mL for endoglucanase assay. The maximum activities range of β-glucosidase or cellobiase activity was 0.6 to1.5 1U/ml. The maximum xylanase activities value Bacillus cellulolysticus 2579 (T), Bacillus subtilis 2414 and their mixed culture were 12.0,11.5 and 12.5 unit/mL, respectively. All the enzymes were stable at an optimum pH range value of 3.0-7.0 and temperature range of 30˚C-50˚C. The maximum filter paper degradation percentage was estimated to be 71.76% by mixed culture after 48hrs of incubation period, it was observed that the maximum filter paper degradation was done by mixed culture than Bacillus strains.

Biodiesel production was estimated by following the EN-14103 method and ester content was calculated on the basis of response factor with a minimum set value of ester content will be 96.5%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Thiourea on Physiological Performance of Two Salt Affected Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars

Syeda Maasooma Zahra, Abdul Wahid, Nazimah Maqbool, Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41352

Aims: The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effect of thiourea on physiological characteristics of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties under impact of salinity.

Study Design: Experiment includes two rice varieties named as B-515 and KS-282, salinity level of 150 mM, thiourea of 0.25 mM alone and in combination were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Old Botanical Garden, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan, between 4th July and 21st August 2015.

Methodology: Transplants of two rice varieties, Basmati-515 and KS-282 were exposed to salinity (150 mM) and thiourea (0.25 mM) after one month of transplanting in a Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Harvesting data was taken that include fresh and dry weights, leaf area, number of tillers, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal and substomatal conductance, water use efficiency and intrinsic CO2 concentration as well as chlorophyll contents in two rice varieties.

Results: Thiourea treatment enhanced photosynthetic efficiency of Basmati-515 more than KS-282 by improving the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and gas exchange attributes more than control.

Conclusion: Salinity profoundly affect the physiological performance of two rice varieties especially that of KS-282, while 0.25 mM thiourea application unable to mitigate the effect of salinity but thiourea alone proved to be beneficial for both the rice varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Age and Pre-ovulatory Estradiol2 Levels on Endometrial Thickness and Number of Dominant Follicles for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Subjected to Ovulation Induction Protocols

Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh, Farah T. O. Al-Jumaili, Dheaa Shamikh Zageer, Mayyahi Mohammad T. Jaber

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42475

Introduction: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the first line of treatment in assisted reproductive technology. Oocyte quality and endometrial thickness are the main predictors of IUI pregnancy outcomes.

Materials and Methods: thirty-one infertile polycystic ovarian syndrome women were enrolled in this study. All study cases were subjected to either administration of clomiphene citrate only or combination of clomiphene citrate and injectable follicle-stimulating hormone protocols. Pre-ovulatory estradiol2 (E2) levels, pre-ovulatory endometrial thickness, and number of dominant follicles were measured.

Results: Significant relationship was between age and number of dominant follicles (p=0.0001). Significant relationship was between number of dominant follicles and pre-ovulatory endometrial thickness (p=0.0001). No significant increase was in mean pre-ovulatory E2levels in age group women (≤32 years) compared to age group women (>32 years) (p=0.384). Significant effect of pre-ovulatory E2 levels were on endometrial thickness and number of dominant follicles (p=0.0382, p=0.0377, respectively). Significant correlation was between the three factors age, pre-ovulatory E2, and number of dominant follicles (p=0.0297). No significant correlation was between the three factors age, pre-ovulatory E2 levels, and endometrial thickness (p=0.081).

Conclusions: age and pre-ovulatory E2 levels had considerable impacts on number of dominant follicles and endometrial thickness and consequently affected IUI outcomes.