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Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Farmer-Driven Composting Technology on Below and Above Ground Biology of Common Bean in Western Kenya

Mwikali M. Pamela

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42629

Composts are rich in nutrients especially carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. These nutrients enhance the colonization of plants by beneficial endophytic and rhizosphere microbes. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted on MMUST farm to determine the effect of farmer-produced composts soil biota and above ground pests on bean plant within Western Kenya. five farmer-produced composts with varying plant and animal waste ingredients (FPC1, FPC2, FPC3, FPC4, FPC5), DAP fertilizer and controls. Each of the resulting 14 treatment combinations comprised of twin plots (3 m × 2 m) for the two bean varieties, each having n = 40 plants per variety, spaced at 50 cm × 15 cm, replicated in 3 blocks (24 m × 14 m) in a randomized block design. Rhizobium root nodules, rhizosphere fungal and bacterial populations (CFU 10-g of soil) where higher in the compost-treatments than in DAP, while soil nematode populations were low. Therefore, the present study concluded that farmer-produced composts in Western Kenya improve below and above ground of common bean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamin C and Total Antioxidant Content in Pepper Fruits (Capsicum annuum L.): Comparative Analysis of Peppers Grown in Conventional and Organic Agricultural Systems

Olivera Bicikliski, Fidanka Trajkova, Ljupco Mihajlov, Suzana Jordanovska, Krste Tashev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42851

Up-to-date, there is no methodical and long-term research on fruit quality and nutritional characteristics of peppers grown in organic production system in Republic of Macedonia. Still, there are debates in broad sense about the advantage of organic vegetable production compared to conventional one in terms of quality characteristics. Led by this idea, this research was conducted with an aim to study vitamin C content and total antioxidant content in fruits of six pepper genotypes as most important fruit quality characteristics and to determine if there are differences in fruit quality properties between those grown in organic and conventional production system.

Fruits of six different pepper genotypes Strumicka Kapija, Strumicka Vezena, Piran, Zupska Rana, Duga Bela and Kurtovska Kapija cultivated in organic and conventional production systems were used for determination of vitamin C and total antioxidant content. The extraction of vitamin C and total antioxidants were performed in a plant tissue extractor with orthophosphoric acid and methanol as extracting reagents, respectively. Vitamin C content was determined by HPLC instrument, while total antioxidant content was measured with potentionstat instrument.

The genotype Strumicka Kapija was characterized with the highest content of vitamin C in both cultivation systems. In all genotypes under study, except Zupska Rana, the vitamin C content was higher in fruits from organic production as compared to pepper fruits from the conventional system. Generally, the total antioxidant content in pepper fruits from the conventional system was averagely lower than the total antioxidant content measured in pepper fruits from the organic production system. These findings are a prove that production system is very important for the fruit quality characteristic and the organic production of peppers results with production of fruits with higher content of vitamin C and antioxidants compared to conventional ones, therefore organic peppers give more nutrition and health benefits to consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms Associated with Deteriorated Books

E. E. Ebah, I. A. Yange, E. O. Agada

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42630

This study was carried out to identify microorganisms associated with deterioration of books from three (3) libraries in Makurdi Benue state. Thirty-four (34) swabs collected from spoilt books from Francis Idachaba Library, College of Science and Veterinary Medicine Libraries, all of University of Agriculture, and Benue State Library Board, from different sections of the libraries were cultured using the pour plate technique. Cellulase activity of isolates was estimated by measuring clear zones of cellulose hydrolysis on Carboxymethylcellulose agar. Results showed that the average count of bacteria ranged from 4.5 × 107 Cfu/ml  to 1.6 × 10CFU /ml and the fungal count ranged from   3.8 × 107 Cfu/ml to 1.4 × 108 CFU /ml. The predominant bacteria species were Pseudomonas sp. 5 (23.81%) and Bacillus sp. 5 (23.81) and the predominant fungi species were Chaetomium sp. 3 (27.27%), Aspergillus sp. 3 (27.27%). Providencia sp. 1 (4.76%), Acinetobacater sp. 1 (4.76%) and Klebsiella sp. 1 (4.76%) were the least occurring bacteria while Penicillium sp. 1 (9.09%), Geotrichum sp. 1 (9.09%) and Bipolaris sp. 1 (9.09%) were the least occurring fungi species. Penicillium sp. showed the highest cellulase activity with cellulase index of 3.20 while Aspergillus sp. showed the least with cellulase index of 1.64. Similarly, Bacillus sp. had highest cellulase index of 2.50 while Pseudomonas sp. had the least cellulase index of 1.20. All measurements were made at 37°C. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the activities of microorganisms to their load count (x2 ≥ 0.05). Findings from this study showed that Francis Idachaba Library of University of Agriculture, Makurdi had the highest bacterial load of 36.64%, and fungal load of 46.47%. Generally, the level of microbial deterioration of books was high in these libraries and authorities must take prompt steps to ensure the safety of books and book users as well as librarians.

Open Access Original Research Article

Managing Acanthoscelides obtectus Say on Stored Phaseolus lunatus L. with Six Indigenous Botanical Powders

A. A. J. Mofunanya, A. I. Nta

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42903

Telfairia occidentalis, Piper guineensis, Gmelina arborea, Bryophyllum pinnate, Amaranthus viridis, and Musanga ceropolides were separately assessed for insecticidal effects on Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, a pest of stored Phaseolus lunatus L. The plants were assessed in a completely randomized design for aduticidal and reproductive inhibition potential as well as effect on seed weight at three treatment doses (2%, 4%, 6% and 0 as the control). Results showed that at 144 hours post-treatment, P. guineensis at 6% dose had the highest significant (P=0.05) mortality (59.5%) of A. obtectus. This was followed by P. guineensis which had comparable effect 2% (50.9%) and 45 (54.9%). The least significant mortality was observed in control. At 4% and 6% A. viridis had similar mortality effect on A. obtectus as 6% G. arborea, while 2% A. viridis, 6% B. pinnate, 2% and 4% G. arborea had similar effect. The highest number of progeny emerged after 49 days were observed in control (345.33±8.84) while P. guineensis significantly (P=0.05) inhibited progeny followed by 6% G. arborea and 6% M. ceropolides. Phaseolus lunatus seeds treated with 6% P. guineensis also had the least significant weight loss while the control had the greatest weight loss of 32.56 g. Though all these test plants significantly (P=0.05) increased adult mortality, reduced progeny emergence and weight loss in seeds than the control. Piper guineensis however, exhibited the best insecticidal property. Piper guineensis and G. arborea were significantly more active in inhibiting A. obtectus reproduction and progeny emergence, but increased adult mortality leading to reduction in weight loss.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Assessment of Vulnerability of the River Ebenyi in Eha-Amufu and Environs, Southeast Nigeria

E. I. Nnamonu, E. E. Nkitnam, F. J. Ugwu, O. C. Ejilibe, S. U. Ezenwosu, G. U. Ogbodo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42520

Aim: Physicochemical assessment of the surface water sourced from River Ebenyi and its tributaries in Eha-Amufu and environs, Isu-Uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria.

Place and Duration: Eha-Amufu and environs, Isu-Uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria. May to July, 2017.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Methodology: Water samples were spatially collected along the river and stream channels in Eha-Amufu and the adjoining Ihenyi, Amaede, Mgbuji, Umuhu, Agamede and Odobudo villages. Parameters analysed include pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Total hardness (TH), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Nitrate, Phosphate, Chloride, and Sulphate.

Results: The concentrations of Cd (0.02-0.05 mg/l) and Pb (0.37-0.77 mg/l) exceeded the maximum limit of the range of values considered as safe by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Conductivity (37.14 – 63.30 µs/cm), Total dissolved solids (TDS) (10.80 – 30.80 mg/l), Total suspended solids (TSS) (10.60 – 21.20 mg/l) and Total solid (TS) (20.60-41.00 mg/l) were within the lower limit of the permissible range of values. Chromium (0.26 ± 0.00 mg/l) exceeded the maximum permissible limit at Agamede village. Sulphate was statistical significantly higher (χ2 = 25.697, p < 0.001) relative to the spatial concentrations of nitrate (4.28 – 11.18 mg/l), sulphate (13.68 – 25.23 mg/l), phosphate (0.00 – 0.28 mg/l) and chloride (9.11 – 15.50 mg/l) in the area.

Conclusions: The baseline results obtained from this study with regards to Cd, Cr and Pb demands that effective health education programme should be organised to emphasize on the effect of anthropogenic activities that releases pollutants. However, long term sampling covering all the months of the year is needed in order to confirm the reproducibility of our results.