Open Access Short Research Article

Anti-cancer Properties of Anphen Sodim and Its Effect on Antiapoptotic Proteins of the Bcl-2 Family

Elena Mil, Valeriy Erokhin, Vladimir Binyukov, Vladimir Semenov, Anastasia Albantova, Alexander Goloshchapov

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43388

Aims: It’s known that apoptosis, necessary for renewal and vital activity of cells, is suppressed in the tumour cell. The strategies of anti-cancer therapy may be a search of the new drugs and development of targeted substances, including the Bcl-2 family proteins, to initiate apoptosis. One of such drugs may be spatially substituted phenol anphen sodium (AS), a derivative of dibunol that can inhibit free radical oxidation and interact with peroxide radicals in the cell, and has also biological activity. The study aims to investigate possible anti-cancer, antioxidant AS action on experimental tumours of the ascitic sarcoma 37 and Lewis carcinoma of F1 (C57Bl × DBA) mice. The influence of AS drug on Bcl-2 family proteins level in blood plasma Lewis carcinoma cells suspension in spleen cells of white mice was determined.  

Place and Duration of Investigation: Emanual Institute of Biochemical Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, between October 2013 and March 2018.

Metodology: To examine AS anti-cancer properties, the kinetic curves of tumour development and the number of ascitic cells in ascitic fluid were studied; the changes in anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and Bcl-2 family proteins levels were monitored by immunoblotting.

Results: A significant (100%) anti-tumour effect of the antioxidant sodium antepoxide AS (2- (carboxy) -2- (N-acetylamino) -3- (3 ', 5'-di-t-butyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl) - sodium propionate was seen when it was administered to mice after transplantation of ascites sarcoma cells 37. The reduction of the Bcl-2 protein took place in the blood plasma of F1 mice (C57B1 × DBA), when AS (10-4M) was administered to mice before transplantation by Lewis cells of carcinoma, as shown by immunoblotting. At the same time, this did not change the survival rate of mice. The administration of AS into the Lewis carcinoma cell suspension causes a dramatic decrease in the amount of monomer and homodimer of Bcl-2 protein for 1-3 hours in these cells. AS drug administered during 4 days (10-4 M) to white mice caused a change in the ratio of Bcl-2 family proteins in the spleen cells, indicating the onset of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

Conclusion: The anti-cancer effect of AS can be associated with an effect on the molecular targets of the  apoptosis pathway, including the proteins of the Bcl-2 family.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antiepileptic Activity of the Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Culcasia falcifolia in Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizure in Mice

A. Gracelyn Portia, D. M. Mwaniki, A. G. M. Ng’wena, P. M. Wanjala

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42844

Aim: To investigate the phytochemicals and the anticonvulsant activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Culcasia falcifolia used in the traditional medical treatment of epilepsy.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using Pentylenetetrazole in mice.

Result: The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the ethanol extract of Culcasia falcifolia revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, and glycosides. In the anticonvulsant activity, there was a significant (*p< 0.05, **p<0.01) increase in the mean latency of tonic convulsion (243.72 ± 6.90*, 402.56 ± 5.52**) and significant (*p< 0.05, **p<0.01) decrease in the mean duration of tonic convulsion (192.62 ± 7.72*, 158.99 ± 8.66**) in a dose-dependent manner at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. respectively. The extract at 400 mg/kg body wt. showed 100% protection against mortality.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of Culcasia falcifolia possesses anticonvulsant activity in PTZ induced seizure in mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Culture Potentialities of Hybrids from Crosses between Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron Reared in Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d’Ivoire) Using Geometric Morphometric Approach

Z. S. O. Bopo, D. P. Sokouri, Y. N. Amon, A. C. Boua, N. S. P. Assanvo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43959

Culture potentialities of the hybrids from crosses between Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) were assessed in breeding design through morphological features using geometric morphometric approach. The crosses and rearing procedure, that lasted six months, are performed into a concrete pond at Layo Aquaculture Station. The morphological studies were undertaken with morphometric biomarkers such as average body shape and components of developmental homeostasis (canalisation and developmental stability). Average body shape between groups was investigated using Relative Warps Analysis (RWA) and Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA), whereas canalisation and fluctuating asymmetry were evaluated from ANOVA Procrustes. The results showed that the body shape of the hybrids is intermediate between those of the two parental species and that the reciprocal hybrids of first generation exhibit heterosis in size. This hybrid vigor appeared more on the hybrids resulting from crosses between S. melanotheron males and Oniloticus females. In a general way, the morphology of the head of the hybrids is similar to that of the parent O. niloticus and their fins resembled to those of the parent S. melanotheron. Moreover, fluctuating asymmetry in shape does not vary between parental species and hybrids, contrary to fluctuating asymmetry in size, which is lesser in latter. Canalisation was found to be smaller in the hybrids compared to the parental ones. So, these results revealed that the hybrids could benefit from most of accrued advantages of parental species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Control against Rice Blast and Leaf Spot by Trichoderma harzianum and Two Fungicides

A. Mouria, B. Mouria, A. Hmouni, A. Ouazzani Touhami, A. Douira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43195

Integrated pest management is performed at intervals of 10 days, during all the season of rice cultivation, by the application of Trichoderma harzianum at a concentration of 108 spores/ml, in alternation with the mancozeb at 1000 ppm against rice blast and rice leaf spot and the pyrazophos at 750 ppm against blast. The assessment of symptoms is performed at the beginning of the panicles appearance, by estimating the incidence of the disease and the symptoms severity.

Thus, at the end of treatment programs, the alternation of pyrazophos and T. harzianum reduced blast at a rate similar to that noted when pyrazophos is used alone (i.e. respectively 90.5 and 89.1%). This percentage is better than that recorded following treatment by T. harzianum alone (78.4%). Mancozeb alternated with T. harzianum reduced blast at a rate of (83.49%) compared with the fungicide or the antagonist alone (77 and 78.4%).

The application of mancozeb alone reduced the leaf spot at a rate similar to that noted following its alternation with T. harzianum (79.2 and 75.64%) and better than that obtained after treatment with T. harzianum alone (69.5%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Biotyping Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains from Tuna Loins and Flakes Produced in Côte d’Ivoire

Andrée Emmanuelle Sika, Beugré Léonce Kadji, Kambire Ollo, Yolande Aké-Assi, Rose Koffi-Nevry, Godi Henri Marius Biego

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/44236

Aims: The study aims to explore the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from tuna loins and flakes produced in Côte d’Ivoire and identify their biotypes.

Study Design: Tuna loins and flakes were obtained from two industries located in Abidjan. Samples of about 500 g frozen tuna were collected in a polyethylene bag and labelled. Samples were stored in an ice box and sent to the laboratory for determination of virulence genes..

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Central Laboratory for Food Hygiene and Agribusiness, LANADA, Abidjan and Laboratory of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nangui Abrogoua Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire during June 2013 to September 2013.

Methodology: 460 Escherichia coli strains isolates were analysed for the presence of diarrhoea-associated genes (elt and est) by multiplex PCR using specific primers and for the biotyping of ETEC strains based on the characters highlighted with the API 20E gallery.

Results: Forty-four isolates (21 from tuna loins and 23 from tuna flakes) were identified for ETEC, including 22 positive for elt, 8 positive for est and 14 positive for both elt and est. Four biotypes (biotype 1, 2, 3 and 4) were observed in this study. Biotype 2 [LDC (-), ODC (-)] was the most prevalent in the strains with frequencies of 56.8% followed by biotype 1 (31.8%), biotype 3 (6.8%) and biotype 4 (4.5%).

Conclusion: This study revealed the presence of different biotypes diarrhoeagenic E. coli (ETEC) and potential public health risks if tuna products are not properly cooked.