Open Access Short Research Article

The Fauna, Habitats and Medically Importance of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Salfit District- Palestinian State

Shadi H. Adawi, Khalid R. Qasem

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/44160

Aim: This study was conducted to discuss the mosquito fauna, breeding sites and its habitat during January 2017 to May 2018 at Salfit district (Northwestern West Bank).

Study Design: A cross-sectional study

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in West Bank -Salfit District to collect mosquito larvae from January 2017 to May 2018.

Results: Six species of the family Culicidae were collected belonging to four genera (Anopheles claviger, Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex perexiguusCulex laticinictus and Culiseta longiareolata) were recorded from Salfit District. Cu. longiareolata, Cx. laticinictus and Cx. pipiens were the most collected species. Anopheles claviger was reported for the first time from Salfit District.

Limitations of the Study: The study discussed the fauna of mosquito breeding sites and larvae habitats at Salfit District during 2017-2018. Larval habitats were recognised visually and some of the other factors not tested (PH, temperature, turbidity of water and percentage of water pollution).

Conclusion: The results show the occurrence of six species in the Salfit District during the study period (2017-2018). Three of them are known to be considered as a vector for viral diseases (e.g. West Nile virus). Further studies are needed to address the systematics, ecology, biology and habitat preference of these species.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Tier Level, Exposure and Period on Egg Production and Grade of Eggs

Adekola Omololu Atanda, Okeke Rufina Obioma, Balami Samuel Paul, Louis Ugwu, Louis Ugwu, Abdullahi Idris, Oludayo Michael Akinsola

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41948

A total of 230 Nera birds were studied in an open and close-ended layer house for 6 weeks to determine the effect of cage location, tier level, and exposure of bird on egg production. Birds were supplied ad Libitumwith feed and water. Eggs were collected twice daily at 11.00 am, and 4.00 p.m. counted, weighed and classified into sizes. The production of the egg was found to be significantly influenced by the location of laying hen. The upper tier recorded 29.17% superiority over the lower tier. This showed that birds laid more eggs in the upper tier. Besides, tier did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect the sizes of the egg laid. In this study, the birds used were exposed to light and dark conditions. The result obtained showed that more eggs were produced at the better lit area than the more shaded area. It is therefore economically viable to have more light in the laying house for increased egg production. Furthermore, it was observed from the result of the experiment that more medium-sized eggs were produced in the better lit area than the darker parts of the house.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Growth Media on Germination and Early Growth of Afzelia africana sm ex pers

E. T. Ikyaagba, J. I. Amonum, I. A. Usman, E. A. Asiegbu, K. Amagu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/38333

The study investigated the effects of growth media on germination and early growth of A. africana in order to enhance its plantation development. The experiment was divided into two; experiment 1 and 2. Experiment 1 investigates the germination response while experiment 2 investigates the early growth response of Afzelia africana to different growth media. Both experiments were arranged in a completely Randomized Design (CRD). The growth media used for the study were Topsoil (control), sawdust, fine sand, riversand and the mixture. Fifty seeds were sown into each growing medium and experiment was monitored for 8 weeks. Data were collected on germination and early seedling growth parameters. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data collected.  Means separation were carried out using the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result revealed that germination percentage was significant at 5% level of probability. The highest germination percentage was recorded in topsoil (68%) while the least was recorded in sawdust (40%). There was significant difference at 5% level of probability on seedling performance. The highest mean height was recorded in mixture (14.71 cm) and fine sand recording the lowest (9.53 cm). The highest collar diameter growth was recorded in sawdust (0.63 cm) and the least (0.42 cm) was in fine sand. The highest stem diameter was recorded for sawdust (0.49 cm), and the mixture recording the lowest (0.35 cm). The highest mean for leaf length was recorded in river sand which had 6.93cm, while topsoil and sawdust recorded the least mean (5.40 cm.). Leaf production in A. africana was not significant between the treatments. The study has shown that the germination percentage of A. africana improved significantly with growing media especially topsoil. The use of sawdust and topsoil as growing media for small and large scale propagation of the species can be adopted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Diets Containing Different Concentration of Saccharina japonica Algae on Growth and Interleukin (IL)-10 Gene Expression of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

Kamrunnahar Kabery, Md. Anisuzzaman, U-Cheol Jeong, Da-In Lee, Hak Sun Yu, Seok-Joong Kang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/44013

The effects of diets containing different concentration of Saccharina japonica algae (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) on growth and Interleukin (IL)-10 gene expression of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were studied. At first, 08 weeks feeding trail was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of sea cucumbers fed with one of the six experimental diets. Result showed that sea cucumbers fed 15% Saccharina japonica algae diet had higher specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion efficiency (FCE) than the other experimental diets (P<0.05). Secondly, Interleukin (IL)-10 gene expression was determined where mice splenocytes were treated with different experimental diets fed sea cucumber extracts for two hours. The highest Interleukin (IL)-10 gene expressions was found in 15% Saccharina japonica algae diets fed sea cucumbers extract compared to other diets except 10% Saccharina japonica algae diet. Results of this experiment suggest that 15% Saccharina japonica containing diet perform better growth and could elevate IL-10 gene expression. This information might be useful in the further development of more appropriate diets for the culture of sea cucumbers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Salicylic Acid and Acibenzolar-S-methyl on Phenols Content and Antioxidant Activity against Toxicity of Juglone in the Development of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana

Amari Ler-N’Ogn Dadé Georges Elisée, N’guessan Aya Carine, Johnson Félicia, Chérif Mamadou, Kone Daouda

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/44897

Aims: To evaluate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) and acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) on the minimal concentration of juglone (Cmin) inducing foliar necrosis- and to determine the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of extracts of banana leaves after SA and ASM applications and toxin injection.

Methodology: Banana cultivars Orishele and Corne 1 were subjected to root and foliar applications of elicitors, then leaves were injected with juglone a toxin of M. fijiensis to the determination of Cmin. The determination of total phenols extracted from leaves was carried out using Folin Reagent. The antioxidant activity of phenolic crude extracts (PCE) was determined through the DPPH radical scavenging ability.

Results: In banana without elicitor applications, the minimum concentration inducing necrosis varied between 12.5 and 25 ppm of juglone but reached 250 ppm of juglone into banana treated with elicitors, particularly with ASM at 50 ppm. The phenol contents were highest 14 days after elicitors application. After this incubation time, with ASM at 50 ppm and AS at 25 ppm, the levels were 16.25 mg GAE/g DW in Orishele and 17.20 mg GAE/g DW in Corne 1, respectively. But the levels were lower 28 days after banana elicitation with 50 ppm of SA into Orishele and Corne 1 respectively 5.60 and 6.79 mg GAE/g DW. Treatments with 50 ppm of ASM showed the highest antioxidant activity between 7 and 28 days after elicitors application on banana leaves. With this treatment, the lowest concentration of phenolic crude extract scavenging 50% of DPPH was 13.09 μg/mL at 21 days after foliar elicitation.

Conclusion: The applications of elicitors SA and ASM affect phenol content and antioxidant activity for the detoxification of foliar tissues of banana cultivars Orishele and Corne 1 infiltrated with toxin.