Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Genotype, Soil Water Deficit and Their Interaction on Agronomic, Physiologic and Yield Traits of Zea mays L.

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. Shafik, M. O. A. Elsheikh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45369

The presence of genotypic differences in performances under soil water deficit would help plant breeders in initiating successful breeding programs to improve drought tolerance. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to assess the effects of genotype, water stress and their interaction on maize agronomic, physiologic and yield traits and (ii) to identify drought tolerant genotypes for use in future breeding programs. Fifteen commercial hybrids and seven breeding populations were evaluated in the field for two seasons under water stress at flowering (WSF) and grain filling (WSG) compared to well watering (WW). A split plot design with three replications was used. Data analysed across seasons revealed a significant reduction in grain yield/plant (28.69 and 20.26%), grain yield/ha (35.53 and 25.51%), chlorophyll concentration index (30.18 and 44.07%) and 100-kernel weight (6.75 and 12.36%) due to water stress under WSF and WSG, respectively, a significant reduction in ears/plant (11.58%), kernels/row (14.23%), kernels/plant (24.85%) due to water stress under WSF and in upper stem diameter (18.46%) due to water stress under WSG, but a significant increase in days to silking (3.50%), anthesis silking interval (21.17%) and barren stalks (26.18%) due to water stress under WSF. Rank of genotypes differed from one irrigation regime to another for most studied traits. The highest yielding genotypes were Eg-77, P-3444, SC-128 and HT-2066 under WSF and P-3444, SC-128, TWC-324 and SC-166 under WSG, in a descending order. These genotypes could be offered to maize breeding programs for developing drought tolerant inbred and hybrids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Spondias mombin on the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis of Zidovudine Stress Induced Wistar Rats

C. O. Ubah, O. R. Asuquo, G. E. Oko, M. A. Eluwa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45293

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functions in the maintenance of homeostasis in the various systems of the body. This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect of Azadirachta indica and Spondias mombin on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenal axis of zidovudine stress induced wistar rats. 25 adult male wistar rats having an average weight of 180g were used for this study and were divided into 5 groups; group A, group B, group C, group D and group E. Group A is the negative control group that received rat chow and water , group B served as the positive control group that received the administration of 450mg/kg body weight of zidovudine drug, group C received 450mg/kg body weight of zidovudine drug and 500mg/kg body weight of Azadirachta indica, group D received 450mg/kg body weight of zidovudine and 500mg/kg body weight of Spondias mombin leaf extract, while group E received 450mg/kg body weight of zidovudine drug and a combination of 500mg/kg body weight of Azadirachta indica and Spondias mombin. The administration was carried out once a day using orogastric tube for a period of 21 days.  At the end of the administration, the rats were sacrificed using chlorofoam inhalation technique, and the whole brain was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formal saline, Blood samples for biochemical estimation were taken. Light microscopic evaluation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis using Haematoxylin and Eosin for  group A showed prominent hypothalamic neurons,  group B showed degeneration of neurons and presence of vacoules,  group C, D,and E  showed less vacoules and prominent neurons with lesser vacoules and more prominence of neurons in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stains  for group A, C, and E of the rat pituitary gland, showed  prominent acidophilic and basophilic cells with presence of blood vessels, while results of group B and D showed presence of vacoulation with less prominent acidophilic and basophilic cells, Haematoxylin and eosin results for group A showed presence of all the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex and medulla, group B of rat adrenal gland showed presence of haemorrhage in the medulla layer and reticularis, group  C had lesser haemorrhage when compared to group  D  and E. Results of Orange G showed prominence in the acidophilic and basophilic cells in Group A, C, D and E and B showed lesser prominence of orange G stains. Cresoyl Fast Violet stains showed more prominent nissl substance in group A, D, when and E while group B showed a reduction in the expression of nissl stains. Results for stastistical analysis of glutathione peroxidase showed an increase in GPX for group D, when compared to groupA, C and E, and B at (p<0.05), results of Malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly increased in group B (p<0.05) when compared to group A, C, D and E. Hence this study proves that single administration of methanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica or Spondias mombin may have neuroprotective potentials and anti-oxidant properties when compared with a combination of the methanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and Spondias mombin leaf extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution to the Knowledge of Fungal Biodiversity in Senegal by a Study of Basidiomycete Species of the Order of Agaricales in the Dakar Region

N. Khady, K. Maimouna, M. W. Adidja, F. Abdalah, N. Kandioura

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/44977

Agaricales is one of the most diverse orders of Basidiomycete leaf mushrooms. Most species of this order are of great scientific interest and economic interest. Despite this huge diversity, Agaricales and mushrooms, in general, have been the subject of very few studies in Senegal. This study was undertaken to contribute to a better knowledge of fungal biodiversity in Senegal, particularly Basidiomycetes species of the order of Agaricales in the Dakar region. For this, observations were carried out in four sites namely; the Botanical Gardens of the Faculty of Science, the Botanical Gardens of the Faculty of Medicine, the Mbao Classified Forest and the Hann Forest Park. The description and identification of the samples were made based on both the macroscopic and ecological characteristics of the harvested mushrooms. This work enabled to make an inventory of seven species of Agaricales from which three were identified. Among the 4 unidentified species, some could probably be new species. All of these inventoried species belong to three genera (AgaricusLeucoagaricus and Leucocoprinus) and two families (Agaricaceae and Lepiotaceae). This preliminary work also permitted to elaborate keys of the determination of harvested species, and a basic list of mushrooms belonging to the order of Agaricales.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Some Proteins Encoded by Genes Significantly Related to Diabetes

Rajika Roy Chowdhury, Malavika Bhattacharya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45510

Aims: The study was performed with the aim of understanding the role of protein structures encoded by a few of those genes which show the most significant alterations in their expression under normal versus diabetic conditions.

Study Design: The study involved identifying a few relevant genes and analysis of various components of their protein structures.

Methodology: Nine genes were shortlisted based on the extensive search of available secondary data. The structures of proteins encoded by them were generated using standard online tools. Comparative models of each of them were also generated in reference to the gene PPARγ due to its high significance in both diabetes as well as obesity, one of its predominant contributing factors. 

Results: Our studies indicate that the protein structures have domains which can interact with each other as well as other signaling molecules and thereby contribute towards the transfer of information across the cells. Moreover, some of these proteins show significant overlap with the protein encoded by the gene PPARγ, indicating probable interactions between them.

Conclusion: These preliminary observations are indicative of probable protein-protein interactions which may contribute towards disease pathology. Further studies on interactions between these domains of various proteins may throw light on this aspect. Since diabetes incidences are increasing exponentially across the world, further detailed analysis of the individual components of the protein structures may help in obtaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in this disease. This study substantiates those findings which have reported the importance of genetics in diabetes.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Yellow Peeling Plane (Brackenridgea zanguebarica Oliv.): A Critically Endangered Endemic Plant Species

M. A. P. Tiawoun, M. P. Tshisikhawe, E. T. Gwata

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/44847

Brackenridgea zanguebarica Oliv. is among the most popular and frequently used tree species in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa. However, the increasing illegal overexploitation coupled with the reproductive inefficiency have caused a severe depletion of this plant population bringing the species on the verge of extinction. B. zanguebarica, commonly known as “yellow peeling plane” and locally known as “Mutavhatsindi” is an important tree usually used both for medicinal and magico religious purposes in the region. This most sought after species is a critically endangered species with its distribution in South Africa restricted to Thengwe village in Vhembe District municipality. It is therefore crucial to develop various propagation protocols in order to increase the availability of this species and expand its distribution area in the region. Despite the risk of extinction and the multipurpose uses, there is a lack of scientific knowledge about many aspects of this plant species. This study revealed that mostly bark is being collected for medicinal use. The aim of the current study was to compile up-to-date scientific information about this critically endangered plant species to promote its conservation. In view of the importance of conservation of such a red-listed plant species, the present review focused on various aspects necessary in strengthening its conservation strategies.