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Open Access Original Research Article

Macroalgae as Soil Conditioners or Growth Promoters of Pisum sativum (L)

Ignacio Jaimes Duarte, Sergio Humberto Álvarez Hernández, Ana Laura Ibañez, Antonio Rodríguez Canto

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43272

Mexico has long littorals that receive great amounts of marine algae that are wasted despite being potentially useful as growth promoters without the inconveniences of agrochemicals. Some macroalgae have been used with excellent results as soil conditioners and fertilisers in agriculture. In this study nine macroalgae from the coasts of Veracruz (Gulf of Mexico) and one from Guerrero (Mexican Pacific), Mexico, were tested. They were added to the soil in the form of fragments and of silage in liquid around Pisum sativum plants. A two-way random design with four replicas was followed. Two controls, hormones and water, were also used. Growth was recorded every third day. Results showed that four algae promoted growth (p<0.05) Ulva fasciata (ensiling treatment) and Ulva lactuca (ensiling treatment) and Gracilaria caudata (fragment treatment) and Palisada perforata (fragment treatment), compared with the hormones and water controls. The activity of Ulva fasciata and Palisada perforata is recorded for the first time. Since the control plants treated with hormones grew much less than those treated with the four algae, we conclude that the release of all algae compounds was responsible for the growth, and not the hormone mimetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pathological Overview and Antioxidant Status of Thyme on H2O2-induced Spleen Tissues Damage

Guesmi Fatma, Landoulsi Ahmed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42443

Objectives: To study the preventive effect of Thymus algeriensis essential oil (TAS) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced spleen toxicity in rats.

Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with Hydrophobic fractions of Thymus algeriensis (180 mg/kg body weight, n=6), H2O2 (0.1, 1 mmol/L body weight, n=6) and the exposure to both drugs orally for 15 days. Histological examination was performed and the levels of biochemical parameters and lipid peroxides were determined.

Results: In spleen tissue protein, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione (GST, GPx and GSH) levels were increased significantly (P<0.05) in the essential oil pretreated rats when compared to H2O2. TAS decreased the intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in spleen tissues. Vascular congestion was seen in spleen of high dose H2O2-treated rats and normal architecture of tissues was observed in other groups.

Conclusion: The biochemical parameters and histopathology examination support the cytoprotective effect of Thyme which could be attributed to terpenes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Analgesic and Cytotoxic Activities of Daucus carota canopy L Ethanolic Extract

Abeer Foaud Osman, Nabila Helmy Shafik, Reham Ezzat Shafek, Helana Naguib Michael

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42402

In researcher’s previous study it has been found that the 80% ethanolic extract of Daucus carota canopy L was the most active extract for antibacterial activity and its phytochemical screening led to the isolation and identification of 12 natural flavone compounds including the new C-glycoside; 6,8-Di-C-α-L-rhamnoside diosmetin besides 11 known compounds. The primary objective of the present work is to investigate the 80% EtOH extract of Daucus carota canopy L for its antioxidant, analgesic and cytotoxic activities and the new compound for its cytotoxic activity. The ethanolic extract (300 µL, 1 mg/ml) gave the highest effective antioxidant activity with inhibition % 82.09 ± 0.15 using radical scavenging method which is more than the standard BHA (68.2) and less than the standard TBHQ (98.2). The cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract against MCF7 gave IC50 19.4 µg/ml, and the new compounds had IC50 is 8.05 µg/ml compare to Cisplatin which its IC50 is 5.48 µg/ml. Its anti-nociceptive properties show that the ethanolic extract (200 µL, 1 mg/ml) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the number of writhes in acetic acid writhing test and increased the response time in hot plate method when comparing with the control group. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Dynamics, Simulation of Protein-Protein Complex and their Role in Cytoprotective Process in Ethanol-induced Toxicity of HepG2 Cell Line

V. P. Kishore, H. P. Puttaraju

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43227

Aim: To examine the protein-protein interaction of Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP of Uzifly) with six proteins involved in Ethanol-induced toxicity and the proteins involved in its cytoprotective process in HepG2 cell line (CYP2E1, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Death-associated protein kinase1, Alcohol dehydrogenases (Alpha/beta/gamma) and Cytochrome-C) and to study real time molecular dynamics.

Methodology: Modelled structure of WSP of Uzifly was retrieved from our laboratory archive. The proteins involved in the Ethanol-induced toxicity and the proteins involved in its cytoprotective process in HepG2 cell line were chosen based on the literature study. The six proteins like CYP2E1, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Death-associated protein kinase1, Alcohol dehydrogenases (Alpha/beta/gamma) and Cytochrome-C which are involved in the Ethanol-induced toxicity and the proteins involved in its cytoprotective process in HepG2 cell line were retrieved from PDB database with ID: PDB (3T3Z), PDB (2C9V), PDB (1DGG), PDB (2YAK), PDB (1U3W) and PDB (3NWV) respectively. Docking study was processed using ZDOCK and the best poses of protein were sorted using rDock. Finally, the atomic level interaction was studied for the best-scored protein-protein complex. The best complex was further subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to study its stability using standard dynamics cascade tool.

Results: From the results, it was observed that three proteins such as Cytochrome-C, CYP2E1 and Superoxide dismutase have more favourable shape complementarity for WSP binding to exhibit the cytoprotective process. However, the interaction analysis was done only for the top complex, Cytochrome-C-WSP. Time dependent parameter analysis of best complex Cytochrome-C-WSP showed that root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values initially deviated but it was stabilized at the end of 1ns dynamics. The radius of gyration (Rg) during dynamics was within the limit.

Conclusion: This insilico study revealed that WSP has cytoprotective potential and therapeutical application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Polyculture of Vietnamese koi (Anabas testudineus): Emphasis on Seasonal Mini Water Ponds in Semi- Arid Zone of Bangladesh

Saokat Ahamed, Khandaker Rashidul Hasan, Maliha Hossain Mou, Md. Imamul Mursalin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42123

Concepts of polyculture of Vietnamese koi (Anabas testudineus) with others short cycle fish species especially in the semi-arid zone of Bangladesh helps to increase the production and utilization of water bodies. Optimization of stocking density with and economics of the culture system was evaluated to mini seasonals pond in Rangpur region, Bangladesh for a period 120 days ( 30 April to 30 August) ponds were randomly divided into three treatments with different stocking density, explicitly Vietnamese koi were stocked 74,000 ha-1, 98,000ha-1 and 1,23,000 ha-1 with other fish species in T1, T2 and T3 with triplicate. Fishes were given to commercially available pelleted feed (30% protein). Recorded water quality parameters were within the acceptable limit for fish culture. Sampling was done every fortnightly interval. After 120 days of culture period average harvesting weight was found 198.67±3.28 g, 179.67±9.06 g and 174.33±4.25 g in T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Specific growth rate (SGR) in T1 (4.19) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than T3 (4.07) but less significant with T2 (4.10).  Survival rate in T1 (85.3%) varied significantly among the treatment, however total production (kgha-1) in T3 was (17859.96±230.21) significantly higher (P<0.05) rather than T2 (15237.46±669.31) and T1 (13278.91± 78.0) but benefit cost ratio in T1 (1.64±0.03) varied with T2 (1.52±0.0) and T3 (1.40±0.02). It can be calculated that there is a huge potentiality for utilization of seasonals ponds with proper culture technique of short cycle fishes in the semi-arid zone of Bangladesh.