Open Access Original Research Article

Inferior Assimilation of Algae-based Diets by Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra under Laboratory Condition Expressed by Stable Isotope Mixing Model

Kunal Mondal, Andreas Kunzmann

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42672

Aim: To investigate the dietary preferences of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra fed with algal food sources like Sargassum, Fucus, Spirulina, Ulva in combination with marine pellet under laboratory condition. Carbon stable isotope technique (δ13C) was used to better understand the assimilation of different dietary food sources.

Study Design: A microcosm approach was undertaken where 24 experimental aquaria were set up, each having juvenile H. scabra. These aquaria were segregated into four different dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. (SGP treatment= Sargassum + marine pellet, FCP treatment= Fucus + marine pellet, SPP treatment= Spirulina + marine pellet, ULP treatment= Ulva + marine pellet).

Place and Duration of Study: Marine Experimental Ecology Unit (MAREE), Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research, Bremen, Germany, between January and October 2017.

Methodology: We included 24 sea cucumber juveniles for conducting the feeding trial. CN contents, C/N ratio and carbon stable isotopes were measured in food sources as well as in   H. scabra body wall. The growth of H. scabra was also monitored. Stable isotope mixing model was used to calculate the exact food preference under laboratory condition.

Results: The results of carbon stable isotopes (δ13C) of sea cucumber body wall exhibited depleted values that are significantly different (ANOVA, P˂0.05) from all the dietary treatments (SGP, FCP, SPP, ULP) thereby suggesting inferior assimilation of food ingredients. The poor performance of selected food sources (algae and marine pellet) towards the growth of sea cucumber was clearly reflected in the data (ANOVA, P>0.05).

Conclusion: Therefore, it is assumed that some additional food source co-existed within the microcosm and could have contributed to their food uptake, probably sediment microbes that require further clarification. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Pattern of Soil Transmitted Helminths (Sths) among Primary School Children at Nnewi, Nnewi- North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

S. N. Ukibe, N. R. Ukibe, A. C. Obi-Okaro, M. O. Iwueze

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42195

Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) are of great Public Health importance. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of STHs among Primary School Children at Nnewi, Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. 250 school children aged 1-12 years were randomly recruited from 5 major primary schools at Nnewi between January and June 2017.  95 (38%) were males while 155 (62%) were females. Stool samples were collected using universal sterile containers and examined microscopically using saline floatation method. Out of the 250 pupils examined, 105 (42%) were positive for at least one STH.  40 (42.1%) of the males examined were positive while 65 (41.9%) of the females were positive. There was no significant difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Children aged 1-5 years had the highest prevalence (62.2%), followed by those aged 6-8 years (33.3). Children aged 9-12 years had the least prevalence. Prevalence was significantly different between the different age groups (P < 0.05). Among the STHs isolated, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (22%), followed by Hookworm (14%). The least prevalent was Trichuris trichiura (6%). No case of mixed infection was detected. The study concludes that STHs are of immense public Health importance in primary School children at Nnewi and efforts should be intensified to promote health education, personal hygiene and sanitation and regular deworming of school children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Consumption of Artesunate and/or Palm Wine on Serum Electrolytes, Urea, Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate

Dien D. Aniyom, Udemeobong E. Okon, Atim B. Antai, Eme E. Osim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43295

Aim: Artesunate (artemisinin derivative) prophylaxis is one of the preferred treatments for malaria including Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nigeria as well as other tropical and subtropical countries. Also widely consumed in the tropics for its taste and alcohol content is palm wine. It is not uncommon to find some individuals on artesunate medication consuming palm wine with the belief that such a combination makes malaria treatment more effective. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the effects of artesunate intake and palm wine consumption on renal function.

Study Design: Thirty participants aged 18 to 35 years were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 persons per group namely; palm wine and artesunate, palm wine only and artesunate only groups. Each group received their treatments for 7 days.

Methodology: This study employs the use of pre-treatment and post-treatment design, with each subject serving as its control. Serum levels of electrolytes, urea, creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were assessed before and after 7 days of treatment. Participants were all Africans (n=30) and were the staff of the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar.

Results: Significant increase (p<0.05) in serum Na+ and a decrease in K+ levels above pretreatment values were observed in the palm wine and artesunate group. Creatinine concentrations of both palm wine and artesunate, as well as artesunate only groups, were significantly increased above control values. Creatinine clearance rate was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the palm wine and artesunate group.

Conclusion: Combined consumption of fresh palm wine and artesunate decreased creatinine clearance rate as well as eGFR. This decrease may be followed by a decline in the other renal function indices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Lead on In vitro Seed Germination and Early Radicle Development of Acacia auriculiformis Cunn. Ex Benth Species

Abderrahmane Zerkout, Hishamuddin Omar, Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Muskhazli Mustafa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43393

Aims: To determine the impact of Pb on seed germination and early seedling development in A. auriculiformis species.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Department of Biology, University Putra
Malaysia, between April 2016 and February 2017.

Methodology: The concentrations of lead from 0 to 4 g/L (interval of 0.5 g/L) were used. Seeds were germinated in vitro condition. Different parameters were measured including germination percentage, seedling vigour index, tolerance index, germination index, mean germination time and relative injury rate.

Results: The noticeable finding of this study reveals that A. auriculiformis seeds have the ability to germination and resist Pb toxicity up to 1.5 g/L. Increasing Pb concentration from 1.5 to 3.5 g/L decreased the germination percentage from 57% to 4% respectively. 

Conclusion: Acacia auriculiformis seeds germination in a high level of Pb (up to 1.5 g/L) indicated species resistance which probably can be used as Pb hyperaccumulator agent in areas or sites contaminated with this metal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Effects of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) Pulp-seed Meal on the Reproductive Index of Red Sokoto Goats

D. O. Okunlola, A. J. Amuda, M. D. Shittu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/36965

Oestrus was artificially synchronized in thirty-six (36) primiparous Red Sokoto goats (RSG) done using 45 mg fluorogestone acetate vagina sponges for fourteen (14) days. Pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) hormone was administered immediately after sponge removal and the does were mated thereafter. Twenty four (24) gravid weighing 15.8 kg – 23.7 kg were selected and fed graded levels of baobab (Adansonia digitata. L) pulp-seed meal supplement in a completely randomized experimental design of six (6) replicates per treatment. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the results obtained. At parturition, animals on 20% baobab fruit inclusion level had the highest mean weight value of 28.8 kg and the does on 0% inclusion level recorded the least value of 20.5 kg. At pregnancy, animals on 30% baobab inclusion level had the highest weight gain value of 5.9 kg, followed by 10% inclusion level with a weight gain of 5.5 kg. 20% inclusion level had 5.1 kg weight gain and the least value of 4.7 kg was recorded for animals on 0% baobab fruit inclusion. Similarly, the weight of dam at weaning ranged from 17.1kg to 24.8 kg. The Birth weight of kids were 1.7, 2.2, 2.1 and 2.0 kg for 0, 10, 20 and 30% levels of baobab fruits inclusion respectively. The sex ratio of male: female recorded in the study were significantly different (P<0.05). 0, 10, 20 and 30% baobab fruit inclusion recorded 33:67 (2 males, 4 females), 50:50 (3 Males, 3 Females), 83:17 (5 Males, 1 Female) and 67:33 (4 Males, 2 Females) respectively. The kid weight at weaning and daily weight gain of the kids was significantly different (P<0.05) at all levels of baobab fruit inclusion. The percentages of kid mortality at birth and at weaning were zero in this study.