Open Access Original Research Article

Consumer Preferences, Carcass Characteristics and Sensory Evaluation of Meat of Four Guinea Fowl Genotypes in the Transitional Zone of Ashanti Region, Ghana

E. Agumah, S. Y. Annor, W. K. J. Kwenin, E. D. Ahiale

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45672

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Guinea fowl genotype on consumer preferences, carcass characteristics and sensory attributes of meat in Ghana. The study was divided into 3 phases, where phase one consisted of sales of a total of 82 Guinea fowls made up of Pearl, Lavender, Black and White and the administration of questionnaires to consumers, retailers, producers and processors in one Municipal (Asante Mampong) and one district (Ejura/sekere dumase district) in Ashanti Region. The second phase involved the slaughter of 16 male Guinea fowls consisting of 4 each of the genotypes for carcass and biochemical analysis. The third phase entailed determination of sensory attributes of cooked meat samples from the four genotypes. Phase two and three were carried out at the Poultry Unit of the Department of Animal Science. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 for consumer preferences and Genstat Release 11.1 (Windows) for carcass and sensory analysis. The study revealed that Guinea fowl genotypes are preferred based on availability. The Pearl genotype was the most preferred. At 32 weeks of age, body weight was significantly (p˂0.05) higher in Lavender, White and Black genotypes. Breast weight was significantly (p˂0.05) highest in the White genotype. The Lavender recorded significantly (p˂0.05) higher drumstick weight. On the other hand, the Black had significantly (p˂0.05) higher thigh weight whiles Wing weight was significantly (p˂0.05) higher in Pearl, Lavender and Black genotypes. Empty gizzard weight was significantly (p˂0.05) highest in Pearl with the least in White. There were no differences in biochemical properties and sensory attributes of meat of genotypes except for raw meat samples where significant (p˂0.05) difference was observed between genotypes. This study concludes that, all the genotypes could be preferred by consumers if made available and that the Pearl could perform much better if improved upon. Breeders should therefore improve upon the Pearl and also concentrate on the production of the White, Lavender and Black Guinea fowls for commercial production. Sustainability of these genotypes will also be achieved to prevent extinction as these are not as common as the Pearl. Further research to elucidate comparable advantage of any one of the genotypes is suggested to give major attention to the specific one.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay of the Gus Gene Expression in Sugar Beet

K. Moazami, S. E. Mortazavi, B. Heidari, P. Nouroozi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/46049

Modification of transformation systems with a set of markers is almost used to confirm whether the transgene has been successfully transmitted to the host cells. Transient expression technique is a fast and simple way to analyze promoter expression. This method is not affected by the position of the transgene in the target genome. In the present study, the gus reporter gene directed by the CaMV 35S promoter and the nptII selectable gene were used for optimization of transformation event in sugar beet. The results demonstrated the activity of β-glucuronidase in the Agrobacterium cells showing suppressed expression of the prokaryotic reporter gene. The function of the pCAMBIA2301 vector was assessed through inoculation of shoot apex with Agrobacterium. The results demonstrated that cells adjacent to the main vein of leave reared from tissue cultured apical meristems were suitable for transformation and regeneration. The highest shoot regeneration was achieved for tissue-cultured leaf explants grown in the presence of BA, IBA and TDZ media. In this study, an improved protocol for regeneration and genetic engineering of a sugar beet genotype was described using the tested vector. Analysis of GUS Histochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the T0 generation plants demonstrated that the tested vector enables the expression of the gus gene in the transgenic plants that was an evidence of transient expression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Sediments Pollution by Trace Metals in the Moloundou Swamp, Southeast Cameroon

Armel Zacharie Ekoa Bessa, Yasser A. El-Amier, Elvine Paternie Edjengte Doumo, Gabriel Ngueutchoua

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/46070

The present study aimed to assess the selected trace metal pollutants in the sediments of the Moloundou swamp. Sediments from typical swamp around Moloundou area, southeast Cameroon were collected from various depths of sediment profile (from surface to 120 cm depth). Five sites were chosen for this study, Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Pb were measured in the sediment. Different trace metals indices (enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination, ecological risk assessment and geo-accumulation index) were calculated. The results showed that all the swamp is slightly polluted and core 3 is the most polluted. Heavy metal indices give some indication for the pollution of sediments of all cores with Cu. The enrichment factor showed that the source of those metals in Moloundou swamp was from natural (Fe, Ni, Zn and Pb) and anthropogenic sources (Cu, Cr and Co). The degree of contamination and contamination factor showed low values along the cores, like the ecological assessment and pollution load index. The geo-accumulation index showed that sediments are more polluted with Cu, Cr and Co. It is urgent to control anthropogenic waste in order to avoid probable pollution in this zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetation Composition Related to Environmental Factors along the International Highway-West Alexandria, Egypt

Oday N. Al-Hadithy, Ashrf M. Youssef, Raifa A. Hassanein, Yasser A. El-Amier

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45342

The present study aimed to characterize the ecological features of the vegetation along the international coastal road from El-Ajami to Ras El-Hekma, West Alexandria, Egypt. The cluster analysis of 60 stands was performed using the Community Analysis Package program and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to identify the ecological relationships between the vegetation and the environment along the roadside. The total number of the recorded plant species surveyed in the present study was 84 species belonging to 74 genera and related to 25 families. Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were the largest families (53.57% of the total species, collectively). Therophytes is the most abundant life forms. Mediterranean chorotype (58.32%) was the most represented. On the basis of the presence values, cluster analysis yielded four vegetation groups. Group A was dominated by Carthamus tenuis, group B by Lactuca serriola, group C by Bromus diandrus and group D by Suaeda pruinosa. The application of CCA showed that the percentages of porosity, organic carbon, CaCO3, Cl-, SO4--, HCO3 and cations are the most effective soil variables. Generally, the coastal sector in Egypt suffers from unplanned development and salinization of the soil, so the development of the highway needs a balance between conservation and development.

Open Access Review Article

Captive Breeding of Threatened Mammals Native to Southeast Asia – A Review on their Ex-situ Management, Implication and Reintroduction Guidelines

Kalai Arasi Arumugam, Kalai Arasi Arumugam, Geetha Annavi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45921

Heavy deforestation and land use conversion in Southeast Asia caused most of the mammals to face the threat of extinction due to limited availability of suitable habitats, which jeopardizes their survival throughout the region. As the demand for certain body parts of threatened mammals increases, illegal poaching activities increase, and consequently their population continuously decreases. Protecting sustainable population numbers or supporting efforts to multiply the population of threatened mammals in their own natural habitats is very challenging, almost impossible until the threats in the wild are removed. Therefore, ex-situ conservation through captive breeding is another reliable method which already been practiced for years across the world. Nevertheless, transferring and raising these mammals in breeding centers requires proper guidelines to maintain their welfare and genetic variability. In this paper, we discussed threatened mammals native to Southeast Asian countries that are currently under captive breeding programs. A multi-disciplinary overview, including: group size and social structure; health, stress and mortality studies and; enclosure design and environmental enrichment, are key components of the best management and husbandry practices. The mammalian alleles may experience evolutionary change if the populations of endangered mammals are retained in captivity after few generations, and that could lead to genetic problems. Therefore, a proper gene ‘flow’ is crucial to maintain genetic variation within and between populations. Finally, an important tool for species conservation is reintroduction of well-managed captive breeding populations into the wild. A complete health screening, selection of sites and pre-release training prior to reintroduction are crucial and need to be addressed for these mammalian populations.