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Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characteristics of Some Pepper Genotypes (Capsicum annuum L.) Grown in Conventional and Organic Agricultural Systems: Comparative Analysis

Olivera Bicikliski, Fidanka Trajkova, Ljupco Mihajlov

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43308

Long-term research in pepper organic production are scarce in Republic of Macedonia. Plant and fruit morphological traits of important pepper varieties organically produced were compared to pepper produced in conventional systems. Conceivably, this is the first morphological traits comparative study of locally important pepper genotypes (Capsicum annuum L.) in Republic of Macedonia in organic and conventional open-field production. The aim of the research is to determine the differences in pepper morphological traits when produced organically in comparison to conventional production. Eight plants and fruits were used for morphological traits determination of plant and fruit in six locally important pepper genotypes (Strumicka Kapija, Strumicka Vezena, Piran, Zupska Rana, Duga Bela and Kurtovska Kapija) grown in an organic and conventional production system. 

The traits number or branches per plant, fruit width and fruit index were significantly affected by the production manner resulting in less branches per plant, lower fruit width and lower fruit index in organic production. The traits fruit weight, pericarp thickness and fruit flesh percentage, which are the most important for pepper crop yield and utilisation of pepper fruits were not significantly affected by the production practice. Organic production has limited influence on pepper plant and fruit traits, but not in a manner to decrease the production, which generally is the main fear of conversion from conventional to organic production in vegetables. Appropriate selection of pepper varieties with application of suitable cultivation and management practices can contribute to successful organic production resulting in high quality pepper production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Jojoba Seed Yield Response to Water Stress under Circumstances of Sinai

Elsayed Abdalla Khattab, Gehan Adel Amin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41665

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the five clones of jojoba plant under the influence of irrigation intervals and the impact on growth and yield of chemical content.

Study Design:  Two field experiments were carried out for five clones (S-L, S-610, S- 700, S-B and S-G), to study the effect of irrigation intervals;  one week (control), two weeks and three weeks) on jojoba plants at aged three and thirteen years from planting to investigation growth, yield characters and content seed from oil and some chemical contents.

Place and Duration of Study: Almaghara Research and Production Station (latitude: 30,717993''N, longitude: 33, 329103 E) which follow Desert Research Center, Agriculture Ministry, Egypt, at 2015l2016 and 2016/2017 respectively.

Methodology: The experimental rows (5 plants) were assigned for each clone in three replications. The farming distances were 4 x 2 meters. Mixed seedlings of both females and males were planted at a rate of one male seedling for every six female seedlings to allow cross-fertilization of each clone.

All clones were treatment at three times (October, March and April). The plants were collected on 22nd April to determine the growth, yield characters and some chemical content.  

Statistical analyses and mean comparisons were conducted using MSTATC software.

Results: The jojoba plant was affected by increased irrigation interval, and it was clear in all clones. Irrigation every three weeks had an impact of irrigation every week. The effect of irrigation interval varied from one clone to another and the lowest was s-700. The older seedlings are less affected by irrigation interval than small seedlings. The best results were category s-700 at the age of thirteen years and irrigation every two weeks.

Conclusion: All variable of studied confirmed that clones of jojoba had a significant effect with irrigation interval at one week but decrease value at three weeks. Jojoba plants tolerance to water stress but irrigation interval every week increased seed yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Altitude on Morphological Traits-based Phenotypic Variability in Bidens pilosa L. from Three Natural Regions of Burundi

Frédéric Ngezahayo, Laurent Manirakiza, Eliane Manirakiza

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43078

Aims: To examine the possible influence of varying altitudes on the morphological traits-based phenotypic variability in Bidens pilosa L.

Study Design:  Randomly selected plants from each natural region.

Place and Duration of Study: Three natural regions of Burundi, i.e. IMBO (842 m), KIRIMIRO (1645 m), and MUGAMBA (2075 m), between November 2015 and May 2016.

Methodology: We randomly selected 36 plants (12 plants from each of the three sites of seed sowing and plant development) for which we measured plant life cycle stages such as the period of germination, the period of leaf formation, flowering period, fruit formation period and complete maturity period. Plant height, internode length, leaf length, leaf width, inflorescence length, achene length, inflorescence number, node number, achene number per inflorescence and achene number per plant, after plant complete maturity were also recorded. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. 

Results: Bidens pilosa from IMBO (842 m) showed the lowest periods of germination, leaf formation, flowering, fruit formation and complete maturity, while longest periods were observed in MUGAMBA (2075 m) region. In addition, one-way analysis of variance showed that phenotypic variation in Bidens pilosa was highly significant within and across populations (P = 0.000) for the studied quantitative morphological traits except the achene number/inflorescence (P = .887). Some traits increased with increase in altitude while others decreased with increase in altitude. Moreover, internode length, leaf length, inflorescence number and achene number per plant significantly differentiated the three populations from the three regions (P < 0.01). Cluster analysis revealed also that IMBO (842 m) population was different from KIRIMIRO (1645 m) and MUGAMBA (2075 m) which are tending to be closer.

Conclusion: Altitudes significantly influenced phenotypic variability of Bidens pilosa. However, further studies on a wide range of morphological traits and altitudes are needed as well as biochemical and molecular analyses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram Pattern Development of Pyogenic Bacteria and the Evaluation of their Multi-drug Resistance

Asma Bashir, Kiran Fatima, Neha Farid, Kashif Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/41785

Purpose: Different studies show consistent predictable bacterial profiles in wound infections, antibiotic resistance and capacity to adapt to a changing environment, which render the pathogens a matter of concern in hospital acquired infections. Therefore, periodical monitoring of bacterial profile and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern is essential. The objective of this study is to determine the commonly encountered pathogens in pus samples along with their antibiotic susceptibility patterns.

Methodology: Pus samples received for diagnostic microbiology were processed and identified by standard protocols at the research lab of SZABIST Biosciences Department. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion method.  MS Excel has been used for data compiling and analysis. Standard Deviation has been applied for the results analysis.

Results: Among the isolated organisms from pus specimens, Staphylococcus aureus (50%) was the most common followed by Escherichia coli (25%), Klebsiella pneumonia (9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%), Proteus species (5%) and Acinetobacter species (3%). Quinolones (76.4%), Cephalosporins (66.4%) and Aminoglycosides (41.6%) were found to be the most effective antimicrobials in vitro, whereas Amoxicillin (17.4%), Minocycline (14.6%) and Trimethoprim-sulphamethaxazole (3%) were least effective. The resistance of organisms to antibiotics is increasing steadily as they are becoming more resistant to newer antibiotics, such as quinolones.

Conclusion: Doctors and nurses need to spread awareness of antibiotic resistance, and it is their duty to keep themselves updated with the latest antibiograms of commonly encountered pathogens, so that appropriate antibiotics may be provided for the treatment of infections.

Open Access Review Article

Synthesis and Development of BACE 1 Inhibitor for Alzheimer’s Diseases from Medicinal Plants

Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed Abdul, R. Vidhyavathi, J. Magesh, M. Vijayakumar, Muneeb M. Mustafa, Faiz M. M. T. Marikar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/40571

Medicinal plants have shown great promise in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which significantly contributes to the production of pharmaceutical and cosmetic molecules with biologically efficient moieties. Plants derived bioactive compounds have been isolated from the medicinal plants and are used in brain diseases. Accountable for brain diseases. Plant extracts have undesirable effects such as acute or chronic toxicity; this could be involved in the delay or discouraging the adoption to the brain cells for proper and effective treatment. β-secretase is the primary protease in the process of producing Amyloid β (Aβ), which is an amyloid precursor protein in brain cells. This review is focused on the numerous different bioactive compounds present in medicinal plants such as Flavonoids, Phenyl propanoids, Prenylated flavones, Naphthoquinone, Resveratrol, Phlorotannins and Glycoside derivatives. Even though medicinal plants and their functional derivatives were reported to be good source of alternative medicines for long sought diseases like AD; but clinical trials on human are yet to be beyond the preliminary stages. The useful applications of these compounds, as bio-markers are also being explored, to further enrich control of Alzheimer’s.