Open Access Minireview Article

Effective Diagnostic Techniques in the Identification of Medically Important Fungi: A Developing World Perspective

Aleruchi Chuku

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43123

Aims: To review current and effective techniques of identifying fungi as against the error prone traditional methods being solely depended on by the developing world and recommend steps to improve fungi identification.

Fungi are eukaryotes with cell walls composed of chitin with or without cellulose. They are ubiquitous and are estimated to be over 250,000 species, of which about 150 have been shown to cause disease in humans. These species that cause disease in humans are regarded as medically important fungi and are of six categories namely zygomycetes, hyalohyphomyces, dematiaceous fungi, dermatophytes, dimorphic fungi and yeasts. Accurate and rapid identification of pathogenic fungi is critical to disease treatment as the outcome borders on life or death. Traditional techniques in the identification of medically important fungi include the use of stains, macroscopic and microscopic morphology, biochemical tests, histopathology and antibody detection but are plagued with limitations which have necessitated the advancement of more effective techniques that address the limitations of the traditional methods. Three of these effective techniques currently in use in the developed science world are Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) techniques. For the developing world, identifying medically important fungi in order to intervene in treating their resultant infections is still a tedious and rudimentary task. The techniques, equipment and trained personnel is still on the “to do list” while the true culprits of fungi diseases remain unidentified or at best misidentified.

Conclusion: The developing world needs to consciously move away from sole dependence on the traditional methods of identifying fungi by being innovative and align itself with current and effective identification methods in order to make a progressive impact in the fight against medically important fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Properties of Heavy Metal Tolerant Probiotic Strains Isolated from Curd

Nivedita Prasad, Manikant Tripathi, Sangeeta Shukla, P. W. Ramteke, Ramesh Chandra

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43480

The two heavy metal tolerant bacterial isolates L. fermentum SN_4 and L. rhamnosus SN_6 were identified (isolated from curd samples) which were found to be potentially resistant to Cr6+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ under study. Both the isolates were resistant to simulated gastric juices at pH 2.0 and 3.0 at 0 hours and survived well more than 50% in 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 1.0% bile salt solution but the isolate L. rhamnosus SN_6 showed the best survival at all the concentrations of bile salt. These two isolates showed poor antagonistic agent activity against the four pathogenic bacteria viz. E. coli, B. cereus, S. typhimurium and V. cholera. L. fermentum SN_4 showed resistant to all antibiotic except clindamycin and azithromycin, on the other hand, L. rhamnosus SN_6 was found resistant to clindamycin and tetracycline only. Also, they were found to be haemolytic negative which proved them to be a potential probiotic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Biochemical Characterisation of Endophytic Bacillus spp from Urtica dioica and Study of Their Antagonistic Effect against Phytopathogens

Dahaieh Naoufal, Hacham Amine, Bourakkad Ilham, Ounine Khadija

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43642

Endophytic bacteria have been isolated from the roots of Urtica dioica. A total of 54 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the underground parts using suitable surface sterilisation protocol. Three isolates R45a; R45b; R21a were tested for antagonism effect against Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica in dual culture method. Significant inhibitory effects on mecylial radial growth have been revealed with a percentage superior or equal to 75%. These strains were Gram-positive rods. Cultures on nutrient agar showed irregular, entirely cream coloured colonies that are strictly aerobic and capable of forming endospore. They belong probably to the genus of Bacillus spp.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic and Molecular Detection of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase in Escherichia coli from Patients in Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation Medical Services, Abuja, Nigeria

A. Bassey, Y. B. Ngwai, B. E. Bassey, I. H. Nkene, R. H. Abimiku, S. K. Parom

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43757

Aim: The study was conducted to determine the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) among Escherichia coli isolates recovered from the urine of patients in Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation Medical Services, Abuja, Nigeria using a phenotypic and molecular method. 

Methodology: Forty five (45) confirmed E. coli recovered from urine of patients with suspected UTIs were obtained; Phenotypic detection of ESBL was done on isolates resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime by the double disc synergy test method. Molecular detection of ESBL genes in phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers was done using Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Results: Of the 40 cefotaxime and ceftazidime-resistant isolates tested, 12 (30.0%) were phenotypically confirmed as ESBL producers. ESBL genes were detected in the order (blaTEM: blaSHV: blaCTX-M): 75.0%: 58.3%: 25.0%. Some (16.7%) of the ESBL isolates harboured both blaTEM and blaSHV; and some harboured other combinations of the ESBL namely blaTEM/blaCTX-M (8.3%), blaSHV/blaCTX-M (8.3%) and blaTEM/blaSHV/blaCTX-M (8.3%).  

Conclusion: Many of the E. coli isolates were ESBL producers; and they harboured blaTEM genes most frequently. Further studies on molecular diversity of the ESBL producing E. coli from urine in the study location should be carried out.

Open Access Review Article

Drug Metabolism and Disposition in Australian Marsupial Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

Suong N. T. Ngo, Anna C. Schumann

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43806

Aims: Koalas are unique obligated eucalyptus feeding Australian marsupials that often require medical treatments after wildlife rehabilitation across Australia. At present, little is known about the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of drugs commonly used in koalas and how koalas handle and detoxify toxic chemicals from both environmental exposure and their unique eucalyptus diet. The aim of this study is to summarise and critically evaluate the current literature on what is known about the pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion ADME) of drugs frequently used in koalas, including antibiotics fluoroquinolones, fluconazole, chloramphenicol and analgesics.

Methodology: Literature regarding drug disposition and pharmacokinetic studies of therapeutic agents commonly used in koalas over the last decade has been critically reviewed. Some older sources from the primary literature search have also been included to determine the background information leading to current rationale behind drug indication, dosage, and route of administration in marsupial koalas and related species.

Results: Most studies reported a much lower bioavailability of orally administered drugs in koalas compared to that in humans and other species. Current dosing regimens do not prove to be effective or optimal in order to achieve the best treatment outcomes. It seems likely that oral administration of many drugs in koalas exhibited poor bioavailability due to poor absorption and might be extensive metabolism via hepatic and intestinal enzymes.

Conclusion: Collectively, the findings suggest the need for further pharmacokinetic studies to investigate alternative routes of administration for many commonly used drugs in marsupial koalas, including antibiotics, anaesthetics, and analgesic medicines.