Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection of Ugandan Passiflora Virus Infecting Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis sims) in Rwanda

W. Waweru Bancy, C. Kilalo Dora, Kyalo Martina, J. Musembi Mutuku

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/42964

The study aimed at identifying the pathogen associated with passionfruit woodiness disease in Rwanda. Field work was conducted in Rwanda while, laboratory aspects were carried out in Biosciences for eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute Hub, Nairobi, Kenya. Duration of the study was from September 2012 to May 2013. Two hundred and one leaf samples exhibiting virus-like symptoms were collected from farmer’s fields in Nyamagabe, Ngororero and Gicumbi district found in South, West and North provinces of Rwanda, respectively. Virus detection was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Virus-like symptoms observed in the field included; leaf mosaic, crinkle, distortion, fruit woodiness and malformations. Ugandan passiflora virus was detected in 70% of the positive samples and other unidentified potyviruses. The incidence of virus infection was highest in North at 45.8% and lowest in West province at 18.7%. Partial amino acid sequences of the coat protein of 169 residues were used to determine the identity of the associated virus. Sequences obtained were highly similar and displayed features typical of potyviruses with 93-100% identity. Comparisons of these sequences with those of other existing potyviruses indicated highest identity (94-100%) to Ugandan passiflora virus isolates from Uganda. Sequences of four Rwandan isolates are deposited in Genbank: isolate RW10 (Accession No. MK132862), RW23 (MK132863), RW104 (MK132864) and RW140 (MK132865). This study confirms presence of the Ugandan passiflora virus in the country. This necessitates the need for production and use of virus-free planting materials, development of virus resistant genotypes and adoption of efficient seed certification systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Shea Nut Shell Biochar on Root Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Fataw Ibrahim, Albert Kojo Quainoo, Frederick Kankam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2018/v30i229741

Effect of shea nut shell biochar on root knot nematodes and performance of tomato was investigated under nematode inoculated soils. Steam sterilized soil was admixed with biochar, which was later inoculated with 1000 second stage juveniles (J2) two weeks after transplanting. Tomato variety (Petomech-GH) was planted in potting medium of soil to biochar ratio of  one part of biochar (250 g) is to one part of soil (1B1S), one part of biochar is to two parts of soil (1B2S), two parts of biochar is to one part of soil (2B1S), and no biochar application (control). Steam sterilized soil amended with biochar inoculated with 1000 second stage juveniles (J2). The result indicated that, biochar increased the pH of the soil, lessened the adverse effects of Meloidogyne spp., resulting in decline in galling and improvement in growth and yield of tomato. Increased biochar concentration resulted in decreased nematode gall formation on the roots of the tomato plant. Biochar amended soils resulted in lower egg masses. Increased biochar concentration resulted in decreased performance of tomato plant. Tomato plants treated with low biochar concentrations (1B2S and 1B1S) produced higher fruit numbers and weights, and plant biomass.

Open Access Original Research Article

Continuous Monitoring of Arterial Blood Pressure and Pulse: Comparison of Morning and Evening Readings

Yuriy Kuksa, Igor Shibaev, Olesja Isaikina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45798

The research is based on long, regular observations of blood pressure and pulse - the heart rate (more than 18 years). The values of these readings are taken from the diary of self-control, which is kept by a patient, one of the authors of this publication, a man born in 1940. Such effective control over the patient's condition, implemented in our case, ensuring its normal vital activity, makes it possible to investigate the influence of external factors on the hemodynamics of the body and the manifestation of the marked temporal characteristics.

A difference between the morning and evening series was noted. The characteristics of evening monitoring readings are more balanced. Spectral analysis allows for a more detailed analysis and comparison of the data. Seven-day component is clearly seen in evening series being modulated with three-year period for the pulse. The morning series are characterized by a “lunar” component with the ~27.35-day period. The absence of a weekly period in the morning readings indicates a rapid (moment of sleep) relaxation of the body from the rhythmic stress of the past day. The manifestation of the "lunar" response can be associated with an increased sensitivity of the body during and after the sleep.

The analysis of pulsatile blood pressure, i.e. the difference between SBP and DBP, provides for more options for assessing the state of the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Incidence and Molecular Characterization of Drug-resistant Escherichia coli of Goat Milk

Aly E. Abo-Amer, Jamal A. Alorabi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45445

Background: Goat milk is recognized for its high nutritive profile. The practise of antimicrobials in feeding of animals produces resistance in bacteria. Therefore, the present study was proposed to study the incidence of drug-resistant E. coli from raw goat milk samples and investigate the genes responsible for the resistance.

Methods: A total of 250 raw milk samples were obtained from different farms of Taif province, Saudi Arabia. Collected samples were cultured on MacConkey agar. Morphological and biochemical tests were achieved for the identification of isolates. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of E. coli was estimated by the disk diffusion method. The resistance genes tet(A) and tet(B), ere(A), aadA1, blaSHV, aac(3)-IV, sul1, catA1 and cmlA, were examined by PCR.

Results: Results of the present study showed that out of the 250 samples examined, 100 (40%) were found to be infected with E. coli.  Antimicrobial resistance profile evaluated showed a higher resistance against ceftriaxone (90 %) and ticarcillin (86%), followed by amikacin and cefotaxime (87%), and augmentin and penicillin (85%). Lower percentage was observed for gentamicin (58%), ampicillin (66%), bacitracin (75%) and imipenem (32%). Furthermore, multi-drug resistance was observed in most of the isolates. Among E. coli isolates, 86% gave positive amplicons for the blaSHV gene followed by tet(A) and  tet(B) genes (85%).

Conclusion: The results suggested a probability of possible public health risk of multi-drug resistance of E. coli strains collecting from raw goat milk samples.  Consequently, appropriate handling of goat milk processing is significant to prevent E. coli infection.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Bioactivities of Honey Bee Venom

Md. Nur Kabidul Azam, Md. Nasir Ahmed, Samanta Biswas, Nargis Ara, Md. Masuder Rahman, Akinori Hirashima, Md. Nazmul Hasan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/45028

The Honeybee (Apis mellifera) is one of the world’s most beneficial insects, as it plays a critical role in many terrestrial ecosystems. The use of honeybee products has been documented for thousands of years in many cultures for the treatment of human diseases, and their healing properties have been documented in many religious texts. The present study sets out to compile information on the history, chemical composition and scientific evidence concerning bee venom research. The promising bioactivities have the potential to provide practical directions for further investigation. PubMed database, Google Scholar Library, research articles, books, and relevant web pages have been accessed to accumulate data so that the updated information included in this study is as current as possible. At least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides, and amines are present in bee venom. Medicinal use of bee venom therapy wields significant in vivo and in vitro outcomes to some extent mitigate the effects of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, HIV, arthritis, liver fibrosis, cancer, tumors, fibrotic diseases, Lyme disease, etc. The effects of bee venom were the first documented in 1888 with the publication of a European clinical study conducted on its impact on rheumatism. According to a study published in the journal, bee venom has been used to treat various conditions for centuries. Such research activities confirm the therapeutic effectiveness of bee venom and as a potential future biomedicine.