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Open Access Original Research Article

A Palynological Review for Some Species of Family Boraginaceae Juss. from the Egyptian Flora

M. A. Kamel, Azza M. H. El Hadidy, Sohair T. Hamed, Nagwa R. A. Hussein

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/46408

The pollen grains of 22 species covering 11 genera are investigated. These selected species are represented by the two subfamilies Heliotropioideae and Boraginoideae with 7 tribes. Light and scanning electron microscopic techniques are followed. This work aims to introduce a well-developed identifying constant and valuable features of pollen grains.  General pollen morphological characters are examined: the size, shape, polarity, apertures types & features, colpi characters, endoapertures and tectum characters. Two patterns of grains are observed; hetero- and homoaperturate. Results are significantly variant; grains are monads, mostly minute- or small-sized and prolate or subprolate. Endoapertures shape is lo- or lalongate. Eight pollen types and 2 subtypes are derived from the apertures types & features, and tectum characters. These results are consumed to describe different taxa. A palynological studying of the Boraginaceae is, however, of great taxonomic significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rice yellow mottle virus, Sobemovirus on the Contents of N P K Ca and Mg in Leaves of Infected Rice

N’doua Bertrand Guinagui, Fatogoma Sorho, Sanogo Souleymane, Brahima Koné, Daouda Koné

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/46625

Rice (Oryza spp) is one of the most important crops produced in the world. Rice production is dampered by environmental and biological factors including mainly pathogens, such as Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), which is the most rice devastating viral disease in Africa: whereas, These factors can be overcome by using different methods such as mineral fertilization supplying. To identify nutrients for this constraint management, a study was carried out in controlled condition in a greenhouse situated at Felix Houphouët-Boigny University station at Bingerville. The rice variety named Bouake 189 was sown in pots using local soil as substrate. Fourteen days old seedlings were inoculated mechanically with isolate of RYMV. Fertilizers N, P, K 12, 24, 18 (200 kg/ha) and 100 kg/ha of urea (46% N) were applied respectively. The concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg as well as protein content in leaves were determined likely. Chlorophyll measurement was obtained using Spad-505. The severity and the (AUSPC) of the RYMV were evaluated. The presence of the RYMV in the infected leaves was confirmed by serological analysis. The averages of the various parameters were compared by ANOVA 2 with software STATISTICA version 7.1. Results showed significant difference (p < 0.001) between the seedlings according to infection levels and highest concentrations of P (0.40%), K (1.10%), Ca (1.49%), Mg (0.39%) and chlorophyll (37.37) were recorded in the leaves of non-infected seedlings whereas those related to infected seedlings were of 0.39%; 0.75%; 0.67%; 0.24% and 21.23 respectively. This was contrasting with N and protein contents recording 2.41% and 15.04 for the inoculated plants and 1.75% and 10.95 for the healthy plants respectively. The average severity and viral load of Rice yellow mottle disease were reduced respectively from 6.22 to 3.88 and from 2.132 to 1.577 under the action of the mineral fertilization (NPK), hence improving rice growth and yield to be targeted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oil Yield and Quality Different Varieties of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) as Influenced by Organic Manures and Biofertilisers

Obida Beenish, Eugenia P. Lal

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2018/43593

The study was conducted at the Central   Research Field of Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad during 2016-17 and 2017-18. The experiments consisting of two factors viz., 5 varieties and 10 fertiliser treatments was laid out in a  factorial randomized block design with replicated thrice. The results of the study revealed that the oil yield was significantly highest with Rani variety while the oil content did not vary significantly amongst different varieties. The fatty acid composition such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic & linolenic acid, and arachidic acid contents showed non-significant variations amongst varieties. The biochemical characters viz., total chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and proline content was recorded at 45, and 60 DAS were significantly higher in Rani variety. Both protein content and protein yields were also significantly highest in Rani variety. Application of 75% N through vermicompost produced significantly highest oil content and oil yield, protein content and protein yield, biochemical characters total chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and proline content recorded at 45 and 60 DAS, while palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid were significantly highest with application of recommended dose of chemical fertilisers. Linoleic acid was significantly maximum with fertiliser treatment of 50% N through vermicompost + Azotobacter + Both linolenic and arachidic acid contents remained unaffected by the fertiliser treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Evaluation of Some Cassava Cultivars against the African Cassava Mosaic Disease in the Humid Forests of Cameroon

A. Mogo, J. Fomekong Nopogwo, E. L. Ngonkeu Mangaptche, R. Ghogomu Tamouh, E. Temgoua, Fotso ., Noé Woin, J. Djeugap Fovo, M. Yemefack, M. Tene Thierry, D. Fotio, Hanna Rachid

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2018/v30i330015

There is a considerable deficit in the annual production of cassava in Cameroon of about 31 million tons, and this has been mainly due to constraints related to pest attacks and most especially diseases like the African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD). This study was therefore undertaken on three sites in the locality of Bityili (South Region of Cameroon), to determine amongst improved and local cassava cultivars those that provide resistance to the development of the ACMD. The severity and incidence of this disease was evaluated and its impact on cassava yield. In each site, cassava was grown in a randomized complete block design. The local cultivars (Ekobele and Ngon kribi) showed higher severity (76-100%) and incidence of ACMD compared to the improved cultivars (TMS 92/0326 and TMS 96/1414) of 0-25% and 0-10%, respectively. Strong inverse correlations were observed between ACMD severity and yield performance, measured in terms of number of tubers/plant and weight of fresh tubers. The improved cultivars, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 96/1414, could, therefore, be recommended for large-scale planting in a bid to promote cassava production in the South Region of Cameroon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Plant Viral Disease Symptoms and Their Transmission Agents in Dutsin-Ma Metropolis

A. A. Bem, M. Toryila, T. M. Anakaa, J. B. Orpin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2018/v30i330016

This work explores the incidence of plant viral disease symptoms as well as their transmission agents in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area Katsina State, Nigeria. The studied diseased plants were identified while diseases were based on visual inspection using characteristic symptoms. Organisms associated with such symptoms were collected by handpicking, shacking/beating and tissue teasing methods. Identification was done using a standard voucher. Incidence of plants with viral symptoms was determined by plant disease index method. Chi square analysis was used to ascertain significant differences (P≥ 0.05) of plants showing viral symptoms. Results shows that plants with viral symptoms included Amaranthus sp. (Amaranthus), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Zea mays (maize), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Carica papaya (pawpaw) and Capsicum sp (pepper). Studies also reveal Myzus persicae (aphids), Frankinella occidentalis (thrips), Bemisa tabaci (whitefly), Peregrinus maydis (leafhoppers) and Pseudococcidae (mealy bugs) as organisms associated with diseased plants with viral symptoms. Disease index showed Amaranthus spp. 63%, Vigna unguiculata 84%, Zea mays 73%, Abelmoschus esculentus, Carica papaya and Capsicum spp. 100%. Incidence rate varied significantly (P≥ 0.05) in the various locations surveyed. Further studies need to be carried out to identify the individual viruses.