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Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variant (SCV) Clinical Isolates in Zaria, Nigeria

R. O. Ikala, B. O. Olayinka, J. O. Ehinmidu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2018/v30i630029

Staphylococcal isolates from specimen submitted to the Medical Microbiology laboratory of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria were collected over a period of 6 months (February-July 2012), characterized by microbiological standard procedures and the S. aureus small colony variant (SCV) isolates were isolated. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer-CLSI modified disc agar diffusion (DAD) technique. The SCV isolates were assessed for the carriage of four virulence genes; sdrE (putative adhesin) icaA (intracellular adhesin) hlg (hemolysin), Cna (collagen adhesin). A total of 258 non-duplicate staphylococcal isolates made up of 219 (84%) S. aureus and 39 (15%) coagulase-negative staphylococci (coNS) where obtained. A total of 48 (22%) isolates were determined to be S. aureus SCV mainly from wound/abscess (31%). S. aureus SCV isolates were generally resistant to all the nine antibiotics tested with only minimal sensitivity to tigecyclin (10.4%) and ciprofloxacin (18.8%). Statistically, there was no significant difference between the microbial load and the different antibiotics that were used, (P ≥0.05). None of the S. aureus SCV isolates carried the four virulence genes which were tested in this study. The results have therefore proved that S. aureus small colony variant exist in our environment and they are more resistant to most antimicrobial agent than their wild type.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Sperm Morphology and Characteristics of Experimentally-induced Hypertensive Wistar Rats Treated with Lagenaria breviflora Roberty or Xanthosoma sagittifolium Exell

Olayinka A. Oridupa, Oluwasanmi O. Aina, Temitope S. Lawal, Adebowale B. Saba

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2018/v30i630030

Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the male reproductive toxicity that may accompany treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats with methanol extracts of whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora Roberty or corm of Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Animal House of the Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology between November, 2016 and January, 2017.

Methodology: Antihypertensive study was carried out in 40 adult male Wistar rats equally and randomly distributed into 8 groups. First group was normotensive rats administered with distilled water, while hypertension was induced in groups 2-7 intraperitoneal administration of DOCA-salt twice weekly and daily inclusion of 1% sodium chloride in drinking water. Group 2 was hypertensive but untreated rats. Two hypertensive groups were administered with Lisinopril (5 mg/70 kg) or Hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/70 kg). Two hypertensive groups were assigned to each extract and these rats were administered with the extracts at doses of 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight. The rats were treated per os for 5 weeks and sacrificed at the end of this period. The testes were harvested and semen samples were obtained from the left cauda epididymis. Semen analysis were carried out to determine sperm morphology and characteristics.

Results: Result showed 1 primary and 7 secondary sperm abnormality types were observed with a non-significant (p>0.05) increase in total abnormal sperm cells. Live/dead ratio and sperm volume were unchanged but, sperm motility and count were significantly (p<0.05) reduced.

Conclusion: It was inferred from the study that hypertension in itself induced infertility and also treatment of the medical condition with the extracts of L. breviflora or X. sagittifolium did not reverse the infertility. Therefore, caution should be exercised when treating hypertension with these medicinal plants, particularly in male animals used for breeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Essential Oils on the Shelf Life of Concentrated Yogurt

Claude Elama, Mohanad Alayoubi, Mohannad Jazzar, Fuad Al-Rimawi .

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2018/v30i630031

Aims: The objective of this study is to use different essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rosemary, almond sweet, sesame, wheat germ, and cedar wood) in concentrated yoghurt as antimicrobial agents to increase shelf life of concentrated yoghurt.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Palestine, between January 2015 to August 2016.

Methodology: Essential oils were added to concentrated yogurt at a concentration of 250 μl\kg. Antibacterial activity and properties of major borne bacteria such as total aerobic count bacteria, yeast, mold, Staphylococcus aureus, were evaluated by plate count method, (pouring plate method). All yogurt samples were sensory evaluated for flavor, body and texture, and appearance. Total solid content, and titratable acidity of different yogurt samples were also determined.

Results: Total solids and pH of concentrated yogurt samples treated with essential oils were only slightly affected. The best three essential oils used in terms of influence on total bacterial viable count and mold count were found to be cinnamon, clove and rosemary. The most acceptable organoleptic properties of treated concentrated yogurt were those samples treated with sesame and rosemary oils.

Conclusion: The addition of cinnamon, clove and rosemary essential oils could increase the shelf life of concentrated yogurt.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Trunk Leg Ratio and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in 200 Level MBBS/BDS Students of Bayero University Kano

Jibril I. Adama, Salisu A. Ibrahim, Y. Abdulmumin, Mukhtar F. Zahra

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2018/v30i630032

Background: Being an important physiological and clinical tool in assessing respiratory conditions, it is common knowledge that Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) may be affected by some factors affecting the normal function of the respiratory system. Such factors include the body constitution such as height, built, sex, age etc.; The trunk-leg ratio (TLR) was used in apparently normal young adults. A better understanding of the association between Trunk-leg ratio and PEFR may identify those with elevated risk of respiratory diseases.

Methods: The study was an analytical cross-sectional design, involving 83 Level 200 MBBS/BDS students of Bayero University, Kano. There were a total of 39 males and 44 females.  A peak flow meter and a measuring tape to scale were used to measure the PEFR, trunk length and leg length respectively. A questionnaire was used to determine any history of cardio-respiratory disease A consent of the participants and ethical approval was obtained before the commencement of the study.

Results: The males had higher PEFR value (491.79±67.19L/min) while the females had a lower PEFR of 366.82±43.28L/min and the difference was statistically significant. The males had higher values of trunk length, leg length and TLR and there was no significant different between that male and female trunk length ratio. There was A significant correlation between PEFR and leg length indicating that the longer the leg length, the higher the PEFR.

Conclusion and Recommendation: Significant correlation was found between the TLR, which is an anthropometric parameter and the PEFR which is an important diagnostic tool in determination of some types of respiratory diseases. This relationship signifies that the taller the person, irrespective of the trunk length, the higher the PEFR. It is recommended that further studies should be explored involving other anthropometric parameters like trunk-leg volume in future studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Ethanolic Extracts of Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) Leaves on Pituitary- Gonadal Axis of Male Wistar Rats

O. R. Asuquo, T. B. Ekanem, O. O. K Oko, M. A. Eluwa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2018/v30i630033

Background: Spondias mombin is one of the tropical plants used locally to treat various kinds of ailment, its use as an anti-conceptive remedy in our locality had been reported.

Objective: The aim of this study was to establish a dose-dependent or duration effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the anterior pituitary cells, testes and epididymides of Wistar rats of Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: A total of thirty (30) matured male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=5). Group 1 animals served as control and received vehicle (distilled water). Groups 2 and 3 were administered with 250 mgkg-1 body weight of extract for 4 and 6 weeks respectively, while groups 4 and 5 received 500 mgkg-1 body weight of extract for 4 and 6 weeks also.  Animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed at the end of the administration. Body weight, weights of reproductive organs and vital organs were evaluated. Blood was taken from the animals for haematological and biochemical analysis. The pituitary gland, male reproductive and accessory glands were excised and fixed in 10% formalin for routine histological examination.

Results: The influence of ethanolic extract of Spondias mombin leaves on the pituitary cells and reproductive organs of male Wistar rats given 250 and 500 mgkg-1 body weight for 4 and 6 weeks showed loss of cytoplasmic contents and free spaces of pituitary cells, desquamation of seminiferous epithelial cells, degradation of seminiferous tubules and reduction in cells. The epididymis of the test groups showed abundant immature cells and cell debris in their lumen. The accessory glands showed homogenous pinkish fluid, glandular degeneration of the prostate and seminal vesicles with decreased structural integrity. The organ weights of the experimental animals were not significantly affected, however, a significant (P<0.05) decrease in reproductive organ weights was recorded. Ethanolic extract of Spondias mombin on liver enzymes showed significant protection against hepatobiliary damage. 

Conclusion: These results suggest that Spondias mombin has a dose-dependent and duration deleterious effect on the pituitary and reproductive organs at their cellular levels rather than on the tissue as a whole.