Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Composition of Seed and Husk of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Infected by Colletotrichum destructivum O’Gara in Storage

A. C. Amadioha, Enyiukwu David Nwazuo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i130034

Colletotrichum destructivum was isolated from infected seeds and pods of cowpea (Var. IAR-48) with typical symptoms of anthracnose disease. The fungus during the pathogenesis, reduced the protein, fat, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate, calcium and phosphorus, and increased the amount of iron, sodium, zinc, magnesium and potassium in the infected seed and husk. The carbohydrate, protein and phosphorus contents in the healthy husk reduced from 55.05%, 11.21% and 171.85 mg to 39.94%, 8.92% and 42.92 respectively in the infected sample whereas potassium and sodium contents in the healthy pod increased from 1.03 mg and 78.29 to 2.90 mg and 100.65 mg respectively in the infected husk. The potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron increased from 1292.25 mg, 0.19 mg, 0.09 mg and 11.00 mg in the healthy seeds to 1536.03 mg, 0.28 mg, 0.21 mg and 13.19 mg respectively in the infected seeds. The fungus caused the depletion of phosphorus from 498. 06 mg in the healthy to 430.17 mg in the infected seed, protein from 24.09% to 17.86%, carbohydrate from 57.02% to 34.35%, fat from 1.70% to 1.33% and crude fibre from 3.94% to 2.61%. The average loss of the major nutrient values; protein, carbohydrate and fat were 28.95%  and 22.55% for seed and husk respectively after 8 weeks of planting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Seed Meal on Performance Characteristics of Rabbit Does

N. Anurudu, O. A. Adebiyi, Z. O. Bello, O. T. Aliu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i130035

The study assessed the effect of baobab (Adansonia digitata) seed meal (BSM) on some growth and reproductive parameters of rabbit does. A total of 24 adult does (age range) were used, the rabbits were grouped into four treatments having six replicates with each replicate consisting of one doe. Treatment 1 (T1) served as the control, treatment 2 (T2) had 5% BSM, treatment 3 (T3) had 10% BSM and treatment 4 (T4) had 15% BSM. The study lasted for 10 weeks.

The antinutritional factor content of the diet increased with BSM inclusion. Tannin, saponin and alkaloid content in the control diet was 0.27, 260.00 and 0.86 mg/100 g respectively, while the diet with 15% BSM (T4) had 0.0055 mg/g (tannin), 7.73 mg/g (saponin) and 0.022 mg/g (alkaloid). However, the pure BSM had 0.0017 mg/g (tannin), 130.00 mg/kg (saponin) and 0.03 mg/g (alkaloid). Feed intake and weight gain were significantly (P<0.05) higher for does in T2 compared to the control diet. Does on T2 converted their feed better compared to does on T3 and T4 with 16.93 and 16.95 respectively. The weight change during gestation revealed that does in T2 had a significant (P<0.05) weight increase of 150.00 g compared with the control with a weight change of 137.00g. However, a weight loss of -30.00 g was observed for does fed T4 (15% BSM). No significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in the litter size of does fed different diets with means ranging from 5.33 to 6.00, although the highest birth weight of kindles was observed in T2 (5% BSM) but was not significantly (P>0.05) different from kindles of other treatments.

It is concluded from the result of this study that inclusion of 5% ADSM in the diet of does did not result in any significant weight loss. However, inclusion levels above 5% posed a threat to the growth performance and reproductive attributes of does.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungitoxic Potentials of Extracts of Plant Origin against Fugal Root Rot of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Storage

A. C. Amadioha, Kenkwo Promise Chidi, A. A. Markson

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i130036

Investigations were carried out on the use of the water and ethanolic extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Casia alata, and Tagetes erecta in the management of postharvest deterioration of cassava root caused by Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer. Water and ethanolic extracts of the plant materials had significant differences (p≤0.5) in their rates of fungitoxicity on the pathogenic organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of C. alata and T. erecta respectively at 50% concentration gave the same highest radial growth inhibition of 80.20% on A. flavus in vitro  followed by ethanol extracts of C. alata, O. graticimum, and P. guineense. The ethanolic extract of T. erecta at 50% concentration gave the highest inhibitory effect of 53.50% on R. stolonifer followed by ethanol extracts of C. alata, O. graticimum, and P. guineense whereas the least growth inhibition of 0.17% was recorded by aqueous extract of P. guineense on R. stolonifer.  In vivo test of the plant extracts applied before and after inoculation with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of test fungi showed significant reduction in root rot incidence and severity.  The lowest incidence and severity of cassava root rot of 16.5% and 1.45 respectively were recorded with T. erecta ethanol extracts applied before inoculation of A. flavus indicating that the extracts of the plant materials could be better used as protectant than eradicant in the control of post harvest fungal deterioration of cassava root. R. stolonifer showed stronger resistance to the extracts of the plant materials than A. flavus during pathogenesis in vivo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediation of Industrial Effluent using Cyanobacterial Species: Phormidium mucicola and Anabaena aequalis

Sanjay Kumar Dubey, Preeti Vyas, Pradeep Tiwari, Amit J. Viswas, S. P. Bajpai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i130037

Different Industries discharge effluent in different water bodies, which is the only reason of pollution. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation and biosorption capacity of some potential cyanobacterial species; Phormidium mucicola and Anabaena aequalis in Textile and Pharmaceutical industries, Mandideep, Bhopal Madhya Pradesh, India. Industrial effluents are contaminated with heavy metal. The effluents were subjected to biological treatment using axenic cyanobacterial strains as batch system for 7 days. Removal efficiencies of the different contaminants were evaluated and compared. Results confirmed the high efficiencies of the investigated species for the removal of the target contaminants which were species and contaminant-dependent. BOD and COD recorded 91.18 and 82.54% as maximum removal efficiencies achieved by Anabaena aequalis. The highest removal efficiencies of the total suspended solids recorded 53.23% achieved by Phormidium mucicola, while 41.61% was recorded as the highest TDS. Concerning the contaminant metals, Phormidium mucicola showed the highest biosorption capacity where 86.12 and 94.63% removal efficiencies were achieved for Zn and Cu, respectively. In conclusion, results of the study confirmed the advantageous potential of using the tested cyanobacterial species for the bioremediation of industrial effluent and clearly showed the quality improvement of the discharged effluent which in turn will eliminate or at least minimize the expected deterioration of the receiving environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution, Characterization and Health Risk Assessment of Manganese in Vegetables and Root Tubers from Gokana, Rivers State, Nigeria

K. W. Nkpaa, B. A. Amadi, M. O. Wegwu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i130038

Food safety and toxic metals accumulation in agricultural soil and food crops grown on such soils are major concern globally as a result of their significant health risks. This study was designed to evaluate the Manganese (Mn) level in vegetables, root tubers and agricultural soils in six communities in Gokana, Rivers State, Nigeria. Mn transfer from soil-to-plant, average daily intake, and human health risk were also calculated. The level of Mn in vegetables and root tubers ranged between 2.19±0.23 – 28.4±1.27 mg/kg and 8.11±0.99 – 56.4±2.12 mg/kg, respectively. While Mn in vegetables and root tubers associated soils ranged between 27.1±1.18 - 88.4±1.77 mg/kg and 33.4±1.84 - 92.3±1.39 mg/kg, respectively across the various study sites. The higher bio-concentration factor (BCF) was obtained for cassava from B-Dere, Gbe and Bodo City. About 55.2% of THQ calculated were > 1. In this study, the daily intake of Mn via the consumption of vegetables and root tubers are more likely to pose severe health risks to the exposed population in Gokana and children are more susceptible to Mn toxicity than adults.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Studies of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Root Infection Using Aspergillus niger Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Trichoderma viride

A. C. Amadioha, Kenkwo Promise Chidi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i130039

Histological studies were carried out to investigate the impact of some pathogenic organisms on infected cassava root after different periods of incubation. Cassava roots inoculated with Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, and Trichoderma viride showed progressive depletion of the starch grains in the cells and tissue maceration of the cassava root as the period of incubation increased. Cassava root inoculated with A. flavus showed tissue necrosis and slight fragmentation of the starch grains whereas, cassava tissues infected with A. niger showed tissue necrosis and general maceration of the starch grains within the tissue thereby creating empty spaces within the cells with no clear arrangement of the starch grains. Inoculation of the cassava tissues with R. stolonifer resulted in rapid loss of the starch grains and erosion of surrounding cell boundaries. Cassava tissue colonized by T. viride showed tissue necrosis and maceration of the starch grains. Healthy (uninoculated) cassava root tissue showed intact cells packed with large starch grains suggesting that in the host-parasite relationship, the pathogens established themselves inter and intracellularly in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex of the cassava root clearing them of starch grains, and resulting to poor yield and nutritional value of cassava and also economic loss.