Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antifungal Activities of Five Plant Extracts against Pseudoperenospora cubensis (Downy Mildew) in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)

M. J. Falade, O. A. Borisade, M. Aluko

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i230041

Laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effect of leaf extracts of five indigenous plant on conidia germination, growth and sporulation of Pseudoperenospora cubensis causing downy mildew disease of muskmelon. Extracts of five plant; mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), bush banana (Uvaria chamae), salt and oil tree (Cleistopholis patens), goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides) and African eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon) at Four concentrations (15, 30, 45 and 60%) were tested against the growth, conidial germination and sporulation of Pseudoperenospora cubensis in vitro.

Results show that all the plant extracts significantly inhibited conidia germination and radial growth compared to the control. The extracts had no significant (p≤0.05) effect on sporulation. The rate of inhibition of growth and conidia germination was concentration dependent being highest at 60% for the extracts. The extracts of Solanum macrocarpon was the most effective followed by Ageratum conyzoides, Cleistopholis patens and Uvaria chamea whileTithonia diversifolia caused the least inhibition of growth and conidia germination. At 15, 30, 45 and 60% concentrations growth of Pseudoperenospora cubensis on PDA modified with Solanum macrocqrponwere 3.79, 3.65, 3.33 and 2.87; and 4.25, 4.12, 3.92 and 3.89 for PDA modified with Tithonia diversifolia. Similarly, conidia germination percentages recorded at same concentration of extracts S. macrocarpon were 87, 85, 70 and 62% while that of T. diversifolia were 91, 87, 84 and 72%. The study shows that the plant extracts has the potential for inhibition of the pathogen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiobesity Activity of Flavanoids Isolated from Solanum macrocarpum in Wistar Rats

N. N. Ngwa, N. M. Nnam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i230043

Aims: To correlate obesity/atherosclerosis with body mass index, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum low density lipoprotein   and serum high density lipoprotein of diet induced obese wistar rats.

Study Design: Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics (Animal research house) and Department of veterinary science both in University of Nigeria Nsukka. The study was conducted between January to March 2012.

Methodology: Four groups of twenty male Wistar rats were fed a highly palatable diet for 2 weeks to induce obesity resembling mild obesity condition in human population after one week acclimatization period. DIO rats received rat chow and flavonoids extract daily for 6 weeks. Group 1 received rat chow alone; Group 2- 0.05% of flavonoids extract and rat chow; Group 3- 0.15% of flavonoid extract and rat chow; and Group 4- 0.25% of flavonoid extract and rat chow. BMI, Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and Triglyceride were evaluated using standard assay technique. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and mean separated using LSD.

Results: Feeding the rats with palatable diet showed increased in BMI (from 0.35-0.40 to 0.60-0.65), total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels along with decrease in HDL (p<0.05). Consumption of flavonoids resulted in the significant reduction in BMI, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride level and exhibit significant elevation in  HDL cholesterol compared to the rats fed only rat chow (p<0.05). It was observed that the decrease in BMI, Triglyceride, total  cholesterol and LDL cholesterol level of rats fed 0.25% of flavonoids were significantly different (p<0.05) from those fed 0.15% and 0.05% flavonoids.

Conclusions: The results suggest that flavonoids extract from Solanum macranthum has atherogenic effect which can help to reduce obesity.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Perception of Residents of Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria about the Veterinary Profession

Samuel A. Ode, Ugoh Nsoffor, James S. Gberindyer, Emmanuella N. Akange-Ejeye, Innocent I. Luga, Nicodemus M. Useh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i230044

Veterinary medicine is the medical science that is concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of diseases, disorders and injuries of animals. A questionnaire-based study was conducted to investigate the perception of Nigerians resident in Makurdi city about the veterinary profession. Makurdi city, located in Central Nigeria, was divided into 10 sub-study areas for the purpose of the survey. Exactly 965 questionnaires were administered randomly to respondents in the study areas and collected immediately they were completed. Data obtained from the study was collated and analyzed using Chi square (statistical package for social sciences, SPSS) and values of P<0.05 were significant. Majority of the respondents (n=936 or 96.99 %) confirmed they had prior knowledge about the identity of a veterinary doctor before the study. Most respondents (P<0.05) strongly agreed that veterinary doctors usually receive more standard professional training than animal scientists. Half of the respondents (n=485 or 50.2%) (P<0.05) strongly agreed that veterinary and human medicine are complimentary in the disease control strategy plan of any nation. Majority of the respondents (P<0.05) either strongly agreed or agreed that ranches should be established for rearing livestock in Nigeria to prevent frequent farmer-herdsmen clashes that have been on the increase in recent times. The significance of these findings and the implication on the development of the livestock industry in Nigeria are discussed.

Open Access Review Article

Towards an Understanding of Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Drought Tolerance in Plant

Yogendra K. Meena, Nirmaljit Kaur

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i230042

Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stress that can causes huge loss to the world food production. It remains a major contributor to severe food shortage and famine. With a consistent increase in world population, pressure will continue to mount on the existing yet limited water resources. The situation is respected to further aggravate due to the predicted increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation consequent upon global warming. Water scarcity has already become a severe constraint in plant survival and productivity of crops in arid and semi-arid regions. The active response of plants to drought stress through various biochemical and physiological modifications improves the metabolism and can further the mobilize various defense mechanisms in order to enhance survival of the plants under conditions of drought. In this review, various physiological and biochemical responses in plants towards enhancement of drought tolerance are discussed.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium (MSC-CM) in the Bone Regeneration: A Systematic Review from 2007-2018

Ismail Hadisoebroto Dilogo, Jessica Fiolin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i230045

Background: The therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is attributable in part to paracrine pathways triggered by several secreted factors secreted into culture media. The secreted factor here is known as the conditioned medium (CM) or secretome.

Objectives: This review is aimed to investigate and summarise the in-vitro, pre-clinical in-vivo studies regarding the role of CM-MSC in bone regeneration from 2007 until 2018

Data Sources: A systematic literature search on PubMed, MEDLINE, OVID, Scopus and Cochrane library was carried out by using search terms: Secretome, conditioned medium, mesenchymal stem cell, bone healing, osteogenic, osteogenesis.

Methods: A total of 611 articles were reviewed. Ten articles were identified as relevant for this systematic literature review.

Results: Three tables of studies were constructed for in vitro studies and in-vivo studies.

Conclusion: All of the included in-vitro studies and in-vivo studies have shown a promoting effect of bone regeneration at various stages. Although there are no clinical studies regarding the use of CM-MSC in the human bone regeneration that have been conducted, transplantation of secretome has shown a promising result in the acceleration of bone healing process.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Abiotic Stress Caused by Industrial Effluents on Seed Quality

B. Venudevan, P. Srimathi, M. Ameer Junaithal Begum

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i230046

India is one of the top ten industrialized countries of global importance. But industries release waste products, which exert negative influences by causing toxicity to biotic organisms and environment. Liquid wastes of industries termed as effluents are characterized with possession of organic and inorganic compounds that evolve with varying levels of toxicity based on the type of industry and its bi-product. Recycling of treated effluent serves as an alternative to tie over water scarcity in sustainable agriculture. On the other hand, dilutions of industrial effluents serves as growth stimulants at an optimal concentration and influences the seed and seedling quality characters and aids in improving the productivity of crops. The safe levels of dilutions expressing the seed invigourative effect are reviewed hereunder, which could serve as a solution for disposal of effluent in agriculture in an effective manner.