Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-efficacy of Bacillus subtilis against Damping off Disease in Brinjal

Deepak Awasthi, Mukesh Srivastava, Shubha Trivedi, Abhishek Mishra, Supriya Dixit, Saurabh Govind Rao, Virendra Singh, Yatindra Srivastava

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i430053

Bacillus sp is one of the biocontrol agents are extensively used in management of fungal diseases of crop plants, exhibiting mycoparasitism against a wide range of plant pathogens. In the present investigation Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis was tested against Pythium aphanidermatum under glass house and field conditions. With regard to the germination and seedling growth parameters, the treatment T2 (liquid formulation of Bacillus subtilis @10 ml/L)  recorded the highest germination percentage (92.59%), shoot length (59.3 cm), root length (24.3 cm), vigor index (7740.52) and yield (22.67 mt/ha). This was followed by the treatments T3, T1 and T4 in the decreasing order of merit. In the biometric observations also, 10 ml/L and 20 ml/L concentration of liquid formulation of Bacillus subtilis recorded statistically significant results. Observations on total protein content in brinjal plants treated with different concentrations of Bacillus subtilis revealed that treatment T2 was found best in both field and glass house conditions yielded highest protein as 0.44mg/ml and 0.30mg/ml respectively. The least values of germination, growth parameters, protein content and yield were observed in untreated control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Caulerpa lentillifera and Sucrose Formulated Diets as Growth Enhancer of Oyster (Crassostrea virginica)

Roldan T. Echem, Ariel Alvarez

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i430055

A total of 200 of Crassostrea virginica populations of average weight range from 41.19 ± 3.42 to 47.53 ± 1.06 g were studied to determine the effect of the feed diets of Caulerpa lentillifera and sucrose as growth enhancement. Growth rates increased that range from 56.99 ± 3.16 to 61.56 ± 2.87 g for 90 days period using an artificial water tank system. Previous studies conducted that C. lentillifera contained high protein and were the most abundant component. This seaweed also contained high amounts of minerals and balanced amino acid and notably very rich in iodine. phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and copper that will contribute to oysters growth. Oysters are known to have the ability to uptake dissolved organic matter as nutrients. In the present study, the effects of culture water supplemented with sucrose were tested on oysters. Results revealed that this organic matter promotes growth to the oysters. Sugars will be metabolized into pyruvate through the glycolysis pathway and will result in the supply of energy.  Therefore, supplementation of sugar to oysters may have contributed as an energy source together with the lipid and protein content from the algae diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wild Edible Mushrooms Depict a Dissimilar Biogeographical Distribution in Humid Forests of Cameroon

A. N. Onguene, Th. W. Kuyper

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i430056

For millennia, wild edible mushrooms (WEM) had always been considered as substantial food and medicinal sources, for local communities, both Bantu and indigenous peoples. However, few information and sparse data are available on useful mushrooms of Cameroon. A study was undertaken to update the checklist of WEM in humid forests of Cameroon. From mushroom excursions, surveys and inventories, thousand fungal specimens were collected in situ, described and identified using key features and references.

Wild edible mushrooms were recruited in three trophic groups. They denoted a dissimilar national biogeographical distribution. Saprophytes and Termitomyces were encountered throughout the country; ectomycorrhizal mushrooms occurred in forest clumps, only in three regions: South, Southeast and Southwest. 117 WEM were listed belonging to 17 families and 43 genera, including nearly 22 Termitomyces, 32 ectomycorrhizal and 63 saprophyte species. 15 WEM were also claimed to have medicinal properties. This vast mushroom diversity related to various specific habitats and ecological niches. Five fungal groups were considered as excellent edible. Amanita and Boletus species were seldom consumed. Most mushroom species were harvested solely for home consumption, with the exception of Termitomyces, the only marketed mushroom. In fine, the diversity of WEM was high but poorly known and valorized. To fulfill the Nagoya convention, it is recommended to pursue mycological inventory of macrofungi in Cameroon, including the use of molecular tools and to cultivate local wild edible saprophyte mushrooms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Microbial Phytase on Nutrient Availability and Growth of Juvenile Clarias gariepinus Fed Soyabean and Groundnut-based Diets

Akpoilih Benjamin Uzezi, Ajani Emmanuel Kolawole, Omitoyin Bamidele Oluwarotimi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i430057

Several studies have shown the positive effect of phytase on phosphorus utilization by fish and animals, with the use of phytase sources determined for different fish species. Few studies have  tested phytase response to different diets, which may affect nutrient availability for optimum growth due to differences in phytate location. The research, therefore, studied the effect of phytase to diets based on soya bean and groundnut meal for Clarias gariepinus on nutrient availability and growth. In trial 1, four groups of soya bean S1, S2, S3 and S4 replaced fish meal at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% and supplemented with 250, 500, 750 and 1000 FTU/g phytase, respectively. In trial 2, four groups of groundnut meal diet G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6, were similarly supplemented with the same phytase levels used in experiment 1. Fish meal control (S0=G0) was not supplemented with phytase. Result showed that 250 FTU/g phytase showed the highest mean weight gain for both plants. In conclusion, the research has shown that the chemical nature of phytate, rather than its concentration and location, may influence the utilization of phosphorus for optimum growth in the fish by supplementing 250 FTU/g, with a range of available phosphorus requirement of between 0.75% (Y = 0.363 + 4.155X - 2.772X2, R2 = 0.759) and 0.80% (Y = 0.307 + 3.303X - 2.059X2, R2= 0.210)

Open Access Original Research Article

Rapid Assessment of the Sex Ratio of the Fiddler Crab, Uca tangeri, in Two Mangrove Habitats on the Bonny River

M. Torle, M. Miebaka, J. Onwuteaka

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i430058

A rapid assessment of the sex ratio of the fiddler crab, Uca tangeri, was undertaken in two mangrove habitats on the Bonny River which were undergoing intense human impact as a result of dredging and urbanization activities. The contrasting adult sex ratios of 4:1 of male to female at Eagle Island and 1:2.6 at Rumuolumini and or juveniles showing 2.4:1 (Eagle Island) and 1:1.8 (Rumuolumini) were highly significant (χ2 test, P<0.05). This shows evidence of studies supporting deviation in Uca spp from the 1:1 proportion. Evidence of anthropogenic activity and intensive socioeconomic exploitation provided no explanation for the contrasting high deviation in ratio of males to females between Eagle Island and Rumuolumeni habitats. Megalopae settlement is evident but the physical, chemical and interspecific cues that determine gender balance are necessary for any intended future conservation planning.

Open Access Review Article

Developments of an Emerging Infectious Agent: Norovirus

Manikant Tripathi, Shailendra Kumar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v31i430054

Norovirus, a member of calciviruses family is the leading cause of community-acquired and nosocomial acute gastroenteritis or inflammation of the stomach and intestine. This pathogenic virus is highly communicable and found in the stools and vomit of infected persons. The symptoms of infection include sudden vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramp, headache, low grade fever, nausea, chills, etc. This RNA virus spreads through contaminated foods or liquids, sharing norovirus loaded objects and contact with infection individual. There is neither a specific medicine nor vaccination available for norovirus infection. Some vaccines are under pre-clinical trials. However, the virus can be controlled by following good personal hygiene practices such as hand washing, eating properly washed fruits and vegetables, properly cooked foods, and cleaning of the area occupied by patient. Norovirus infection can be regulated through public awareness and dissemination of proper knowledge about this viral infection. The present review summarizes the biology of infections caused by norovirus and their control measures.