Open Access Original Research Article

Renal Protective Effect of Ginkgo biloba and L-carnitine Extracts against Pentylenetetrazol Induced Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, Injury and Proliferation Alternation in Epileptic Rats

Ehab Tousson, Akaber T. H. Keshta, Youssef Hussein, Reda M. Fekry, Wafaa K. Abo-Ghaneima

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i230076

Objectives: Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBLE) and L-carnitine extract are a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal widely. They have antioxidant and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. This study hypothesized that GB and L-carnitine may have protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced oxidative damage in kidney in male albino rats.

Materials and Methods: A total of 80 male albino rats were equally divided into eight groups (G1, control; G2, GBLE; G3, L-carnitine; G4, Pentylenetetrazole; G5&G6, pre and post treated PTZ with L-carnitine groups respectively; G7&G8, pre and post treated PTZ with GBLE respectively). Results: Serum urea, creatinine, uric acid and cystatin c were significantly increased in PTZ group when compared with control. Also; kidney homogenate MDA and DNA fragmentation were increased when compared with control while, significant decrease in CAT, SOD, GST and TAC in PTZ when compared with control. On other hand pre and post-treatment with L-carnitine and GBLE improved these parameters.

Conclusions: The results revealed that; the treatment with L-carnitine improved these parameters more than GBLE and the results of post treatment were better than pre-treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathy Effects of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis by Green Method from Pulicaria undulate

Eman R. Elsharkawy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i230078

Nanotechnology nowadays has good potential application in many fields, especially in agriculture and industries. This study investigated the allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of Pulicaria undulate and nanoparticle synthesis by eco-friendly method from silver nitrate and water extract of Pulicaria undulate on seed germination of two weeds species. Aqueous extract and silver Nanoparticles plant extract (AgNPs) had an inhibitory effect on seed germination of common (Lepidium sativum, and Trifolium repens) as compared with control. Lpidum stavium seed germination was inhibited by nanoparticle and water plant extract at 100% concentration at the end of 10 day incubation period, at low concentration 25% of aqueous extract and AgNPs the germination ratio of L. sativium reached (30% and 5%) where for Trifolium repens the germination ratio were (50% and 0% respectively). Nanoparticle are green synthesis by simple methods, using the aqueous extract of pulclaria leave and silver nitrate, the confirmation of nanoparticle was done by different methods UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UV-visible spectra revealed the absorption peak at 449 nm, while the emission peak of Ag was detected at 466 nm. SEM analysis revealed that the synthesis of Ag NPs was spherical in shape and has an average size (13.3-23.8 nm). The concentration of plant showed a dangerous role in size and dispersion of NPs, the decrease occurs at low concentration this confirms the plant are oxidizing in nature. Herein we suggest the use of nanoparticle synthesis from Ag nitrate and aqueous extract of Pulicaria undulate as herbicide instead of synthetic herbicide after further studies to confirm the results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Putative Mechanisms of Drought Tolerance in Maize (Zea mays L.) via Root System Architecture Traits

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. Shafik, M. O. A. Elsheikh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i230079

Identifying maize genotypes with favorable root architecture traits for drought tolerance is prerequisite for initiating a successful breeding program for developing high yielding and drought tolerant varieties of maize. The aims of the present study were: (i) to identify drought tolerant genotypes of maize at flowering and grain filling, (ii) to interpret the correlations between the drought tolerance and root architecture traits and (iii) to identify the putative mechanisms of drought tolerance via root system traits. An experiment was carried out in two years using a split plot design with three replications. The main plots were assigned to three water stress levels, namely: well watering (WW), water stress at flowering (WSF) and water stress at grain filling (WSG), and sub-plots to 22 maize cultivars and populations. Drought tolerance index (DTI) had strong and positive associations with crown root length (CRL), root circumference (RC) and root dry weight (DRW) under both WSF and WSG, a negative correlation with brace root whorls (BW), and positive correlations with crown root number (CN) under WSF and brace root branching (BB) and crown root branching (CB) under WSG. These root traits are therefore considered as putative mechanisms of drought tolerance. The cultivars Pioneer-3444, SC-128, Egaseed-77, SC-10 and TWC-324 showed the most drought tolerant and the highest yielding in a descending order; each had a number of such drought tolerance mechanisms. Further investigation should be conducted to determine the underlying root mechanisms contributing to the selection of water-efficient hybrids of maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibody (IgG2bMAb) for Detection of Coproantigen from Experimentally Infected Rats with Strongyloides ratti

Noor Abduhaleem, Aliyu Mamuda, Tijjani Mustapha, Roslaini Abd Majid, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Ngah Zasmy Unyah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i230082

Background and Aim: Highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for the detection of Strongyloides is needed due to the intermittent and low concentration of eggs, larvae and adult worms that can be found in a faecal specimen. In some cases, repeated sampling of the faecal specimen is required to obtain satisfactory and reliable results. The aim of the study is to develop and evaluates monoclonal antibody-based Sandwich ELISA for the detection of coproantigen associated with Strongyloides infection using S. ratti as a model.

Place and Duration of Study:  Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Malaysia, Between September 2018 and   March 2019.

Methodology: The monoclonal antibody was raised against a soluble antigen of the infective filariform larvae (iL3) of S. ratti. The monoclonal antibody produced (IgG2bMAb) was evaluated for cross-reactivity against homologous and heterologous helminth antigens such as excretory-secretory (ES), infective larvae (iL3) and coproantigen of S. ratti, adult worms of A. caninum, A. suum, T. canis and T. cati.

Results: An IgG2bMAb was observed to react with 30 kDa proteins associated with all homologous antigen from iL3, ES and coproantigen of S. ratti and cross-reacted with one heterologous antigen from adult worm of A. caninum at the same molecular weight. There was no cross-reaction observed with other heterologous antigens from adult worms of T. canis, T. cati and A. suum. The sensitivity of IgG2bMAb for the detection of S. ratti was 85% in Sandwich ELISA. Cross- reaction was observed with hookworm antigen that caused by A. caninum in Western immunoblotting.

Conclusion: The results indicated that IgG2b have an immunodiagnostic property as IgG2bMAb and was able to detect antigens from coproantigen related to S. ratti with 85% sensitivity based on Sandwich ELISA) even though cross-reaction was observed with A. caninum. These findings will be very useful to tackle many cases of multiple worms’ infections such as both strongyloidiasis and hookworm. Therefore, we recommend that further evaluation and study in the human area where multiple infections can be common should be carried out.

Open Access Review Article

Some Effects of Sound and Music on Organisms and Cells: A Review

Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Claire Brun

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i230080

In animals, the sound vibrations are captured by the auditory cells, then transformed into electrical signals and conveyed to the nervous centers where they can be interpreted such as music. A lot of studies concern the effect of sound on the auditory cells and on the brain. Nevertheless, musical vibrations also affect other cells types in several organisms. These researches being not of the same nature, they need to be classified in order to provide elements of understanding the effects of music on cell biology. A lot of works were done on the effects of music on non-auditory cells. Effects on growth, apoptosis, immune system, protein activities in animal, plant and bacterial cells have been shown. These effects are of a physiological nature and require molecules and physicochemical mechanisms. Some works were performed on vegetal or animal total organisms, others directly on cells themselves, using cell cultures. Few works concern eukaryotic unicellular organisms. Results of these studies show music and sound exert effects on the physiology. But the experiments and results are still well disparate, with effects of different types of music on organisms via auditory on non-auditory cells, sometimes involving both auditory and non-auditory cells. Whatever the large variation of results, the study of the effects of sound and especially music on the cells is a subject on the future, considering the immense possibilities offered by music in modulating physiology, with potential therapeutic applications.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Targets on Toxoplasma gondii Parasite in Combatting Toxoplasmosis

Sharif Alhassan Abdullahi, Ngah Zasmy Unyah, Noshariza Nordin, Rusliza Basir, Wana, Mohammed Nasir, Ashraf, Ahmad Alapid, Yahaya Hassan, Tijjani, Mustapha, Roslaini Abd Majid

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i230081

The status of toxoplasmosis management is challenged by drug intolerance, compromised efficacy and potential development of drug resistance. However, currently, there are very limited targets on T. gondii that serve as the site of action of current medications. This review aimed to explore more potential targets that are essential to parasite survival and are absent in humans. Many unexplored targets on T. gondii exist and their specificities to the parasite make them ideal drug targets. The present review had searched relevant English databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar and Science Direct, for relevant literature on the therapeutic target of T. gondii. Many of the enzyme systems in several pathways are essentially palatable as drug targets. Establishing compounds that can target these enzymes on T. gondii will greatly be beneficial in treating acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in humans.