Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation into the Possible Risk Effects Associated with Drug and Alcohol-induced Gastrointestinal Ulcer in Wistar Albino Rats

Oladayo E. Apalowo, Oladayo J. Areola, Gbenga S. Ogunleye, Ayodeji S. Odukoya, Olusegun O. Babalola

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i330085

Aim: The study investigated the possible risks associated with gastrointestinal ulcer disease by evaluating the biochemical response of three body organs; heart, kidney and liver, in gastric ulcerated rats.

Methodology: Twenty male wistar albino rats were used in the study. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats with single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) aspirin, 80 mg/kg b.w. indomethacin and 5 ml/kg b.w. acidified ethanol (40:60 v/v). Blood samples were collected into heparinized bottle and centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 mins to obtain the plasma. Gastric tissue, liver, kidney and heart were also collected.

Results: Oral administration of 400 mg/kg b.w. aspirin, 80 mg/kg b.w. indomethacin and 5 ml/kg b.w. acidified ethanol caused a remarkable increase in ulcer index. There was observed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in AST and ALT activities in gastric ulceration caused by aspirin (Asp), with no significant (p<0.05) change in total protein (TP) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activity. However, there was increase in creatinine and urea concentration. Acidified ethanol and Indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in all other parameters except ALT and lactate dehydrogenase activities which did not show any significant (p<0.05) change. There was also observed a significant (p<0.05) increase in creatine kinase activity in indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats.

Conclusion: Overall, the result indicates a link between gastric ulcer and organ toxicity. The use of NSAIDs above the therapeutic doses in the treatment of pains and related illness as well as excess consumption of alcohol is shown to negatively impact the stomach and cause serious damage to different body organs of wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation Analysis of Toxic Metals Distribution and Pollution Indices in Soil, Beans and Maize Samples of Kano State, Nigeria

A. J. Alhassan, I. U. Muhammad, M. S. Sule, M. A. Dangambo, A. M. Gadanya, Y. Umar, Misbahu A. Dangambo, A. Mohammed, M. Syed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i330086

Correlational study and evaluation of pollution indices of toxic metals distribution in soil and crops of a population are imperative for assessing the risk of chronic diseases associated with these metals. Correlational analysis for the distribution of; lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) in soil (S), bean (B) and maize (M) was conducted around Bunkure (BKR), Danbatta (DBT), Gwarzo (GRZ), Ungogo (UGG) and Wudil (WDL) as sampling zones around Kano State, Nigeria. The samples were collected from farm harvests in each of the sampling zones. The metal concentration was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Results in mg/kg across the local governments indicate respective ranges for Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr of; 0.33 - 3.13, 0.14 - 0.84, 0.02 - 0.05 and 0.01- 0.49 in soil, 0.04-4.23, 0.06-0.23, 0.02-0.04 and 0.00-0.10 in maize and 0.20-4.23, 0.16-0.19, 0.03-0.04 and 0.00-0.03 in beans. Although with the exception of mercury, the ranges of the toxic metals are within the tolerable range set by International Standard Tolerable Limits and European Regulatory Standard. Potential hazard may be speculated because the detected levels are on higher tolerable ranges. A higher level of mercury in almost all the samples indicates potential hazards associated with human activities in those areas. A strong positive correlation between soils samples in respect to the level of some of the toxic metal may suggest a common nature of the soil, while the negative correlation may be due to variation in agrochemicals in-use. For the pollution load index, Wudil had the highest soil pollution load index for Hg (3.13 ± 0.16), Cd (1.6×10-2 ± 0.01) and Cr (4.9×10-3 ± 0.01), while Ungogo had the highest pollution load for Pb. Also, all grains within the study zones exhibited a positive transfer factor, except Cr in Bunkure, Danbatta and Gwarzo. It may be concluded that crops grown in those areas may bioaccumulate some of these toxic metals, thereby incorporating them into the food chain, hence potential health risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Health Risk Associated with Heavy Metal Contamination of Edible Vegetables in Cement Contaminated Area

Edmund Richard Egbe, Augusta Chinyere Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Sunday Jeremiah Offor, Chinyere Adanna Opara Usoro, Maise Henrietta Etukudo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i330087

Aim: Heavy metal (HM) content of some vegetables in the vicinity of a cement factory can be a useful index for assessment of HM contamination of the environment associated with cement production.

Study Design: This cross sectional study was conducted at the United Cement Company at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria between February to November 2016.

Methods: One hundred and forty edible vegetables of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf), Amaranthus viriditis (green leaf), Talinum triangulare (water leaf), Lavantheca africanum, Heinsia crinata and Gnatum africana were collected at varying distances and directions from the cement factory site and an area remote to the site serving as control. The lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) content of the vegetable samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance at P = .05.

Results: The Pb, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd, Se and Zn content of vegetables in all the locations studied were within the safe limits except for Cr and As levels of some vegetables from location closest to the factory which were higher than the safe limits. The HM content of all vegetables from location closest to the factory were significantly higher than those from other locations (P <0.001). The hazard quotient (HQ) of all HM in all the vegetables were <1 except for Mn in T. occidentalis which was >1. The hazard index (ƩHQ) for all HM in all the vegetables were >1.

Conclusion: Cement production is associated with chromium and arsenic contamination of edible vegetables and increase in hazard index of HM levels in vegetables closest to the factory which may be implicated in increased risk for development of deleterious health consequences to consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening of Root, Stem and Leave Extracts of Terminalia avicennoides

M. Emmanuel, A. J. Dadah, A. A. Orukotan, J. Abbah, I. E. Aigbogun

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i330088

The phytochemical screening of Terminalia avicennoids was carried out using qualitative method to determine the bioactive compounds present in the plant root, stem and leave extracts. Cooled Maceration method was used for the extraction.  Hundred grams (100 g) of each powder was soaked in 1000 ml of distilled water, allowed to stand for 5 hours.  The suspension was agitated after 30 minutes. The filtrate was thereafter separated from residue using No. 1 Whatman filter paper and concentrated using rotary evaporator. The crude extracts were separately kept in a screw capped bottle for further research. The bioactive compound in the plants were detected using AOAC method. The result revealed that alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponins, phenol and glycoside were detected in the plants while steroid was not detected in the plants. Therefore, the presence of these phytocompounds is an indicative that the plant is medicinal and it can be used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

Open Access Review Article

Modern Fungicides: Mechanisms of Action, Fungal Resistance and Phytotoxic Effects

Ekaterina V. Baibakova, Elena E. Nefedjeva, Małgorzata Suska-Malawska, Mateusz Wilk, Galina A. Sevriukova, Vladimir F. Zheltobriukhov

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i330083

The establishment of safe and effective methods for controlling fungal diseases is an urgent issue in agriculture and forestry. Fungicide research has provided a wide range of products with new modes of action. Extensive use of these compounds in agriculture enhances public anxiety due to the harmful potential for the environment and human health. Moreover, the phytotoxic effects of some fungicides are already recognized but still little is known about their influence on the photosynthetic apparatus and plant physiology. This review provides an understanding of the mechanisms of action of fungicides, mechanisms of fungicide resistance development, and the phenomenon of phytotoxicity.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Prevalent Weeds and Cultivated Crops in the Epidemiology of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Major Maize Growing Agroecological Zones of Uganda

Barnabas Mudde, Dora C. Kilalo, Florence M’mogi Olubayo, Godfrey Asea, Andrew Kiggundu, Daniel Bomet Kwemoi, Douglas Watuku Miano

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i330084

In Uganda, the severe Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease, which threatens subsistence maize production is caused by co-infection of maize plants with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). However, there is no information about natural hosts of MLN causing viruses and their role in epidemiology of MLN in Uganda. The aim of this study was to determine existence of natural alternative weed and cultivated crop hosts of MLN causing viruses. Three seasonal surveys between 2014 and 2015 were carried out in five major maize growing agroecological zones of Uganda. Weeds and cultivated crops growing in proximity to maize were observed for virus symptoms and tested for MLN causing viruses using Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Data was collected on frequency of occurrence of weeds and cultivated crop species and MLN virus disease incidence. Digitaria abyssinica, Bidens pilosa and Commelina benghalensis were the most common weed species while Phaseolus vulgaris, Manihot esculenta, Arachis hypogaea), Musa sp, Glycine max and Ipomoea batatas were most common cultivated crops. Pennisetum purpureum, Digitaria abyssinica, Cyperus rotundus, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Eleusine indica weeds species are natural hosts of Maize chlorotic mottle virus. Among the cultivated crops, Phaseolus vulgaris, Manihot esculenta and Sesamum indicum are natural hosts of MCMV. Only Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tested positive for SCMV. MCMV incidence in weeds ranged from 2% to 63%% and 2% to 29% in cultivated crops. MLN causing viruses were prevalent in weeds and cultivated crops located in known hotspots for MLN in Uganda. The study has revealed that alternative hosts of MLN-causing viruses are present in major maize growing agroecological zones of Uganda and act as sources of inoculum to sustain MLN epidemics.