Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Analysis of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae and Comparative Study of Protein Profiling under Biotic Stress

P. N. Gaikwad, R. H. Autade, B. B. Ghorpade, R. S. Chavan, A. A. Ghane, D. K. Sarode

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i530096

Bacterial blight of pomegranate caused by X. axonopodis pv. Punicae (XAP) assumed epidemic form and resulted in economic burden on farmers. In the current study the pathogen infected samples were collected and the isolated XAP was identity and confirmed through the morphological, biochemical characterization and Pathogenicity test. Bacterium was reisolated from infected plant to prove Koch’s postulates. Efficacy of different chemicals and oils were tested by disc diffusion assay and turbidometrically. Bronopol 3000 ppm (25.6±1.6 mm) and Clove oil (18.0±0.7 mm) formed highest zone of inhibition Turbidometri showed the highest O.D. (0.908 nm) by Copper oxy chloride and Neem oil showed maximum inhibition of growth with O.D. (0.842 nm). Biotic stress (pathogen) induced protein response was studies by using SDS-PAGE method after protein extraction from XAP, healthy P. granatum L. and infected P. granatum L. The protein band pattern showed the unique band no. 2 (Mol.Wt.66000 Da) in infected P. granatum L. as compared to the banding pattern of XAP and healthy P. granatum L. The over expressed protein due to biotic stress could be useful as a marker for detection of the disease at the early stage and for control of the diseases after knowing the biochemical significance of the protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morpho-physiological Basis of Yield Performance of Early Maturing Rice Varieties in Bangladesh

Md. Babul Akter, Md. Tariqul Islam, Md. Monjurul Alam Mondal, Md. Imdadul Hoque, Md. Kamruzzaman, Mahmudul Hassan Nafis, Afia Sultana, Md. Shamsher Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i530097

A considerable progress in plant breeding for higher yield is attained mainly through selection of morpho-physiological attributes in rice. The field experiments were conducted at three different locations under sub-tropical conditions with four early maturing rice varieties viz., Binadhan-7, Binadhan-17, BRRI dhan33, and BRRI dhan39 during kharif-2 rice season (Aman; July-October) of 2016 to find out the natural variation in the morpho-physiological attributes contributing to  higher grain yield in rice. Morphological parameters on plant height, root structure, tillering ontogeny, internode elongation pattern, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf angle, number of primary & secondary rachis, branches and also physiological traits on chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate, total dry mass, growth rate, number of vascular bundles,  harvest index with yield and yield contributing characters were studied. Results indicated that plants having rapid growth and development at early growth stages showed  higher chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate, long flag leaf, number of vascular bundles in 1st internode and also exhibited the increase in the number of grains per panicle resulting higher grain yield. Among the test varieties, Binadhan-17 showed superiority in the most morpho-physiological criteria and higher number of vascular bundles manifesting in higher grain yield. This information may help breeders to identity and develop high yielding rice variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Growth and Virulence of Five Nigerian Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungi Using Galleria mellonella Larvae for Pathogenicity Testing

A. O. Kalesanwo, M. O. Adebola, O. A. Borisade

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i530098

Entomopathogenic fungi (EF) are naturally occurring insect population regulators, with several species that are exploited as biocontrol agents against insect pests. Five EF consisting of two strains of Isaria farinosa, (IF-I and IF-II) and one strain each of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Entomophaga sp. (Sensu lato) were isolated from soil using Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (Herbst) larvae as bait. The isolates were cultured on standard Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) (Sigma-Aldrich, UK) and identified based on phenotypic appearance and micro-morphology. Growth rates (mm day-1), number of conidia per cm2 colony area after incubation for 14 days at ambient temperature (25±2°C), viability of conidia (% germination), based on 24-hours incubation period and virulence of the infective conidia against Galleria mellonella were evaluated. The data on growth was subjected to analysis of Variance (ANOVA) procedure and means were separated using Tukeys Honestly Significant Difference (P=0.05). The number of conidia produced by Entomophaga sp was (7.0×105 conidia cm 2 per colony area), while the isolate of M. anisopliae produced (5.2×104 conidia cm2 per colony area). The number of conidia produced by the two isolates of I. farinosa, IF-I and IF-II and B. bassiana were 9.4×104, 7.2×104 and 2.1×105 conidia cm2 per colony area respectively. Eighty percent of Entomophaga sp conidia germinated after incubating for 24 hours at 25°C while 100% germination occurred in the other fungal isolates. There were statistically significant variabilities in the rates of growth of the EF isolates F(4,2.064) =12.97, P=0.001. The B. bassiana isolate had the fastest growth rate, with statistically significant value of 3.3 mm day-1. The rates of growth of the two I. farinosa isolates: IF-I, IF-II and M. anisopliae were comparable, being 1.53, 1.4 and 1.28 mm day-1 respectively, without statistically significant difference. The growth rate of Entomophaga sp was 2.0 mm day-1, which was significantly higher than the growth rates of I. farinosa and M. anisopliae. The mean percentage mortality values of, G. mellonella larvae treated with 1×108 conidia ml-1 of the infective conidia of I. farinosa, IF-I, IF-II, M. anisopliae, after five days were 70, 60, 60% respectively while Entomophaga sp and B. bassiana caused 50% mortality. The results suggest that the five isolates examined can potentially be developed into experimental formulations and tested against important horticultural pests in future studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Chemical Compositions of Two Different Non-polar Extracts of Heliotropium sudanicum Aerial Parts from Sudan

Hatil H. El-Kamali, Alaa A. Tawfig, Maha A. Y. Kordofani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i530099

Aim: Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) is a widely spread genus of plants found in the Central and Northern parts in the Sudan and used for the treatment of inflammations, and rheumatism from ancient times. The aim of this work is to provide answers to impending research questions on compounds present in petroleum ether and n-hexane extracts of the aerial parts of H. sudanicum.

Methodology: Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts was performed by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer. Various constituents were identified after matching their mass fragmentation pattern with data available in Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer library of National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST).

Results: Petroleum ether extract of H. sudanicum was characterized by abundance of 1,6,10,14,18,22- Tetracosahexaen-3-ol, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-, (all-E)- (33.99%), Squalene (20.94%) , Phytol (7.62%)  and Hexatriacontane (7.49%). The constituents of the extract were fatty acid derivatives (15.24%), hydrocarbons (8.41%) and terpenoids (28.56%). H. sudanicum n-hexane extract was characterized by abundance of 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-,methyl ester (15.14%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (14.67%), Cholesterol (11.12%),  Fucosterol (10.30%), gamma.-Sitosterol (9.59%) and1,6,10,14,18,22- Tetracosahexaen-3-ol,  2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-, (all-E)- (7.73%).

Conclusion: The resulted compounds in this study provide evidence for the utilization of the plant as alternative natural resource of medicinal and industrial interest. To best of our knowledge this is the first report that directly compares the two extraction solvents for active compounds from Heliotropium  sudanicum aerial parts shows that petroleum ether should be the solvent of choice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Taxonomic and Ecological Significance of Foliar Epidermal Characters in Four Taxa of Mussaenda L. (Rubiaceae) in Nigeria

Felix Ifeanyi Nwafor, Maria O. Nwosu, Amarachi Z. Nwafor

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i530100

Aims: This study investigated leaf epidermal features as taxonomic markers in delimiting two West African species (M. elegans and M. erythrophylla) and two Philippine infraspecific species (M. “Doña Aurora” and M.“Doña Luz”) of Mussaenda L. in Nigeria and their ecological significance.

Study Design: The experiment adopted a Completely Block Design (CBD) of four plant taxa from two study locations with 10 replicates each, totaling 80 samples.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, between June and September, 2010.

Methodology: Fresh leaves were collected from the Tropical Rainforest (TRF) and Derived Savanna (DS) vegetations of Nigeria under the same weather conditions. Leaf epidermal strips were prepared by clearing method, stained with Safranin and observed under the light microscope.

Results: The stomata are of the paracytic type borne on polygonal to irregularly shaped, wavy epidermal cells. Simple trichomes were also a common feature in all taxa. Mussaenda erythrophylla has significantly (P ˂ 0.05) the least dense stomata (84.51 ± 0.73 mm-2) while M. “Doña Aurora” has the densest stomata (230.98 ± 2.67 mm-2). M. elegans and M. “Doña Aurora” have significantly the highest stomata index (28.48% and 28.98% respectively) while M. “Doña Luz” has the lowest (24.31%). Samples from the TRF have significantly higher density, index and size of stomata in M. elegans and M. “Doña Luz” than those from DS. Quantitative trichome parameters also vary among the taxa. The fewest trichomes were observed in M. elegans (7.90 ± 0.14 and 11.75 ± 0.21) while they are most abundant in M. “Doña Luz” (11.77 ± 0.11 and 18.90 ± 0.51). Ecological conditions affected these variables as trichomes were more abundant in the specimens collected from DS locations.

Conclusion: Epidermal features are proven significant tools in taxonomic delimitation and as environmental indicators in predicting climatic changes and environmental pollution.

Open Access Review Article

The Protozoan Tetrahymena: Cellular Model for Biological Studies

Papa Daouda Mar, Bouchra El Khalfi, Mounir Benyoussef, Abdelaziz Soukri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i530095

Biological research, including clinical trials, mainly uses animals as model organisms. Currently, animal experimentation remains controversial for several reasons, namely the implementation of animal protection and ethics panels, the high costs and the long duration of experiments. These constraints encourage researchers to use alternative methods in order to overcome these barriers.

The ciliate Tetrahymena is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that has contributed significantly to the acquisition of knowledge in the field of fundamental biology. Characterised by a well-ordered structure and a short life cycle, the protozoan Tetrahymena is very commonly used in the laboratory due to the ease involved in handling it. Therefore, this organism has allowed researchers to elucidate a number of mechanisms in higher organisms including mammals.

This bibliographic review describes the favourable biological characteristics of the protozoan Tetrahymena as well as various physiological and molecular studies that have been carried out on this organism. Studies have shown that Tetrahymena is one of the alternatives to animal experimentation and a major contributor to the development of biological and life sciences.